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A New Type of Government. CHAPTER 5, SECTION 1 A Virtuous Republic.

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Presentation on theme: "A New Type of Government. CHAPTER 5, SECTION 1 A Virtuous Republic."— Presentation transcript:

1 A New Type of Government

2 CHAPTER 5, SECTION 1 A Virtuous Republic

3 Republican Virtues George Mason’s VA Declaration of Rights (1776) argued that a virtuous citizenry could only operate a government of liberty  Public education in states began to spread for both primary and higher  Women were included Churches began to lose state support Washington foreswore a dictatorship after victory  Resigned after the war and pledged to go back to farming

4 Changing Society By the 1777 VA, ML, NJ, DE and PA had constitutions  PA abolished property as a qualification for voting and office  GA, PA, DE, SC, VT abolished religious tests Primary education systems were created along with protections from debtor’s prison  1790s MA gave young girls access to education Loyalists fled en mass—some property confiscated Cities saw great change as patriots took power from tories

5 A New Western Nation The end of the war brought recession (economic slump)  Trade disrupted, ships destroyed, flood of low-priced goods  State governments in debt  Representatives from western lands less affluent and wealthy  Inflation soared—colonial paper worth 150 th its original value Farmers pressed against back taxes Farm conventions protested taxes, land seizures and debtor’s prison

6 Martial Challenges New nation had to handle a string of conflicts:  Piracy, impressment and the seizure of goods/vessels in the Med.  British troops still garrisoned in along borders  Indians resisted western encroachment  Creeks named Georgians as “Ecunnaunuxulgee” or “people greedily grasping after the lands of red people”  Spanish claims to the Gulf blocked Miss. Trade Rational solution to many of these problems was a plan for western settlement

7 I Read the Constitution for the Articles All 13 states ratified the Articles of Confederation 1781  Existed until Constitution adopted 1789 Limited central government:  Make treaties, declare war, resolve state disputes, borrow and print money, call for monies for defense Central legislature Congress, was most powerful  Each state had 1 vote  New laws need 9/13 approval, changes must be unanimous  No permanent executive

8 Land and Money Congress couldn’t tax and lacked funds Bank of North America was chartered to stabilize economy Congress looked to western lands to raise funds  AL, MS created allowing slavery, north of OH river slavery banned NW Ordinance 1784 divided region Land Ordinance 1785 created surveyed grids  In, IL, OH, MI, WI

9 Expansion and Settlement Jefferson developed several plans, finally one was approved by Congress NW Ordinance 1787 made 13 disparate colonies a semi-cohesive republic  When new terr. had enough people, could apply to be a state  Appointed Governors would rule territories  Ensured orderly settlement and expansion of nation Also ensured sharp regional division on slavery

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11 SECTION 1 A New Constitution

12 Shay’s Rebellion Former Continental officer Capt. Daniel Shays led groups resisting the authority of a distant gov’t Shut down local courts, prevented judges from entering courts  Barrington, MA dispatched militia which even joined rebellion Towns across the state had courts shut MA passed the Riot Act outlawing illegal assembly Shayites defeated 1787 Represented the weakness of the AOC and its decentralized gov’t

13 A New Government String of problems led many Patriots to call for a stronger central gov’t.  Shay’s was hard to control  States asserted right to control tariffs 1786 Madison invited states to a convention on taxes and tariffs 2 nd convention in Philly was called to review AOC 1787 Philadelphia Constitutional Convention hosted all colonies but RI  Most delegates were propertied, slaveholders

14 Dueling Proposals Many known patriots were absent:  J Adams, Jefferson, S Adams, P Henry “Smelled a rat” Madison proposed the VA Plan  Central gov’t can overturn state law  National electorate creates gov’t above states based on population  Multi-tier election system reducing popular influence NJ proposed  Ability to raise revenue  control commerce,  states maintain sovereignty  Equal representation of states in legislature

15 Many Compromises CT delegates proposed upper chamber of 2 reps for each state, lower house decided by population National court created, lower courts left to states No property qualifications for national voting President decided by electoral college, Senate approved by state legislatures Allowing slavery to continue maintain compromise  Fugitive slave clause  Slavery not mentioned directly in Constitution  3/5 compromise

16 Road to Ratification National government given power of taxation, defense, external commerce, supreme law, necessary and proper laws as needed Nation must honor debt, but forbids states to print money  9 states must ratify through special conventions Debate on ratification broke into 2 categories: — Federalists and Anti-federalists

17 Federalists Anti-federalists Better organized Published The Federalist Papers Strong gov’t could conduct foreign affairs Separation of powers prevents tyranny Interests would compete Diverse opposition Feared gov’t by wealthy State politicians feared reduction in state influence Educated cited philosophy or small governing republics Ratification Debate

18 Federalist Anti-federalist 84% 64% 46% 16% 36% 54% CT, PA, NH Ratification by Profession Merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, ministers, large landholders Artisans, surveyors, innkeepers Farmers

19 Federalist Anti-federalist 82% 65% 42% 18% 35% 58% Political Alignments of State Senators by Wealth Wealthy Well-to-do Moderate Means

20 Ratification 10 amendments offered to placate skeptics about rights, freedoms and liberties Constitution viewed at times as a civic and secular religion By states had ratified, 1790 RI was the last

21 New Government Emerges 1788 election federalists held sway in the House Electoral college chose Washington as president, Adams received less votes—became VP Judiciary Act (1789) created a federal district county in every state as Constitution only created Supreme Court Hamilton as Treas. Sec. pushed modernization of economy for stable government  1790 “Report on Public Credit”

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23 Hamiltonian Reforms Congress would buy up Confederation securities to ease credit Creation of a national debt Assume war debts of states New financial capital along the Potomac Bank of the United States to stabilize economy through loans Jefferson was skeptical

24 The New Nation 90% of government income came from customs New taxes proposed for revenue (whiskey) Hamilton’s controversial ideas split the Federalists  In the north led by Hamilton  In the south (Democratic Republicans) led by Jefferson and Madison Jefferson decried the progress of the new country  Lamented paper sellers, factory conditions, and social divisions

25 Whiskey and Discontent 1793 Washington issued neutrality in trade agreement as Britain and the post-revolutionary French went to war Wheat prices rose sharply Sugar trade worth $20m annually Western farmers attacked tax collectors and decried distant governments (a la the Stamp Act)  Whiskey rebellion proclaimed the motto of the French Revolution  Eventually dispersed by a 12,000+ man army composed of state militias led by Washington

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27 Jefferson Hamilton Limited central gov’t— protect states Agrarian republic Broad constitutional interpretation Pro-French Additional powers for Nat’l gov’t Commercial republic Strict Constitutional Interpretation Pro-British Opposing Perspectives

28 New Challenges French Revolution brought British seizure of American vessels  Canadians also made war speeches to frontier Indians 1794 Jay’s Treaty reaffirmed British ability to collect debt but removed NW garrisons  Conceded UK right to remove property from ships 1795 Pinckney Treaty—SPN recognized US right to Miss. Navigation, while fixing FL border Political divisions sharpened  Dem. Repub. were a loose coalition of farmers, planters, Scots & Irish Federalists took elections 1796 with J. Adams as president

29 Frontier Problems Western settlers continued to exacerbate Indian tensions 1794 war with Ohio natives left 900 soldiers dead 2 nd campaign dealt natives a blow—1795 Grenville Treaty Ohio tribes ceded land to US Rather than appear weak, combined with suppression of Whiskey Rebellion, Washington’s administration was centrally capable

30 Learning & Fashion Republican Americans read and debated more often Books, pamphlets, magazines and libraries proliferated Female education and rights became a hearty theme  Murray, Rowson, Moore, Wollstonecraft Americans toasted to politics, argued over other revolutions and supported foreign policy with fashion

31 Adam’s Presidency Washington didn’t seek a third term Election of 1796 Adams won against Jefferson Jefferson became VP  Federalists had plotted to include a VP on “the ticket” to draw votes away Washington offered a “Farewell address” warning of:  foreign entanglements, partisan rancor and regionalism

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33 Quasi-French War France recalled its diplomat from America and began seizing ships Adams dispatched officials to France who weer snubbed Unnamed French officials X, Y and Z apparently demanded bribes to start negotiations Americans rallied” millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute”  Naval war broke out and a massive army was raised

34 Alien & Sedition To handle the quasi war federalists enacted  Expanded bureaucracy—Department of Navy  Property taxes  New legislation Naturalization Acts—residency requirements Alien Act—deport foreigners Sedition Act—prohibited publication of insults 1 st amendment violations?  Acts seemed geared to Republican sympathizers

35 VA and KY Resolutions 1798 Jefferson and Madison articulated a strategy to be rid of the acts VA Resolution (Madison) & KY Resolution (Jefferson) argued that states have right to  judge constitutionality of federal laws  Protect citizens if necessary Northern states weren’t interested 2 nd KY Resolution (1799) introduced idea of nullification  Rather than opt to take concerns to federalist controlled Supreme Court, Republicans went to states

36 Election of 1800 Federalists had become split because of Hamilton’s increasing influence Hamiltonians resented Adams’ peace treaty with Napoleon Jefferson as VP tied Republican candidate Burr  Tie-breaking done constitutionally by House Hamilton told Federalist-controlled House to side with Jefferson  Hamilton couldn’t stand Burr  With VA and ML militias ready, the “revolution of 1800” proved peaceful transition was possible

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