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Vietnam War, part II Ch. 24, Sec 3, 4. Protests against Vietnam Majority of US wanted to win war, wanted increased action. Vocal minority hated war, wanted.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietnam War, part II Ch. 24, Sec 3, 4. Protests against Vietnam Majority of US wanted to win war, wanted increased action. Vocal minority hated war, wanted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietnam War, part II Ch. 24, Sec 3, 4

2 Protests against Vietnam Majority of US wanted to win war, wanted increased action. Vocal minority hated war, wanted US out. Became known as New Left. – Believed social problems (war, poverty, racism) required radical, sometimes violent, change Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) created by Tom Hayden. (College movement) – Used protests to draw attention to “illegal war” in Vietnam. – Financed by Communist Party.

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6 Students at UC Berkeley barred from handing out leaflets on campus. – Said 1 st Amendments rights being prohibited. – Began to protest, fought police who came to arrest them. – UC Berkeley leadership pressed charges, students occupied Administration Building, 700 arrested. Thousands of students & professors went on strike to protest college’s actions. UC Berkeley was most radical college, but protests occurred on colleges across US.

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8 Other College Protests

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11 College students, professors led protest movement. Bout 55 U. of Michigan professors held first teach-in-special session to discuss Vietnam War. – Thousands showed up, led to teach-ins on other campuses. Until mid-1960s, only people opposed to draft were conscientious objectors-opposed fighting on moral/religious grounds LBJ doubled draft numbers twice. – Led to draft resistance movement-burned draft cards, tried to get out of draft on physical disability/C. O. status, about 100,000 fled to Canada. – College students got deferments-not drafted until graduation or dropped out.

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16 1968 was big year for protests. – 200 in first six months alone. – One of biggest was at Columbia in NYC. SDS tried to get college to quit military research; black student group protested building new gym in Harlem. Students took over President’s office, hundreds arrested; students struck in protest, university closed. LBJ realized he was losing public opinion. – “If I’ve lost Cronkite, I’ve lost Middle America.” – Democratic opponents Robert Kennedy, Eugene McCarthy gaining ground in polls. – March 1968-LBJ announced on tv that he would not seek second term in office.

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20 1968 election Democrats: – Robert Kennedy, Eugene McCarthy, Vice-President Hubert Humphrey all wanted nomination. – RFK assassinated, McCarthy seen as too anti-war Humphrey pro-civil rights, but seen as too supporting of LBJ’s war policies. During Democratic National Convention in Chicago, thousands protested war effort. – Chicago riot police beat protestors, reporters, civilians on live tv. Humphrey nominated, but Democratic Party torn apart, anti-war movement gained support.

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24 Republicans: – Richard Nixon was easily nominated. – Very law & order, had “secret plan” to end Vietnam War. – Nixon stayed above campaign, let VP candidate Spiro Agnew do name calling. American Independent Party: – George C. Wallace. – Pro-war, anti-communist, anti-hippie, represented blue collar southerners. – Shot while campaigning. Nixon barely won popular vote, easily won electoral vote.

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27 Final Years of War Before LBJ left office, he started peace negotiations with N. Vietnam. Paris Peace talks came to nothing. When Nixon took office, he began policy of Vietnamization. – Removing US soldiers, replacing them with SV soldiers; turning fighting of war over to S. Vietnam. – By 1972, only 24,000 troops in Vietnam, from high of 568,000. Nixon also ordered bombings of Hanoi, VC bases in Cambodia. – Sent SV & US troops into Cambodia. – Led to civil war in Cambodia, more protests in USA.

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30 Nixon campaigned on law & order, stop violent protests that majority of USA opposed Part of SDS split off, formed Weathermen, began campaign of violence. – Riots in streets, letter bombs, attempted assassinations. Majority of US opposed violence, protests, hippies. – Never got press coverage, called silent majority. – Nixon appealed to them, wanted him to bring order back to USA.

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33 Protests peaked in Kent State U. in Ohio; students tore up business district, burned down ROTC building on campus. – Governor ordered National Guard in; students threw rocks, Guard threw tear gas. – Guards opened fire (first?), four killed, nine wounded. – Known as Kent State Massacre. Jackson State in Mississippi, students rioted, cops came in, two killed, eleven wounded.

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38 Paris peace talks continued, still nothing NV began big attack on SV; Nixon increased bombing of Hanoi, mined NV harbors. Jan. 1973, right after Nixon began 2 nd term, peace agreement signed. – US would pull out all forces within 60 days. – All POWs released. – All military activity on both sides would end in Laos, Cambodia. – 17 th Parallel would continue to divide NV &SV.

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41 POW John McCain

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43 After US pulled out, NV re-invaded, quickly began defeating SV. Spring 1975-NV surrounded Saigon. – US evacuated 1,000 Americans, 6,000 S. Vietnamese out of SV before Saigon fell. April 30, 1975-S. Vietnam surrendered, Vietnam reunited under Communism. – Nixon begged Congress to go back in, Congress refused. After Vietnam, Cambodia fell to Communist Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot. – Killed 1.5 million Cambodians, 25% of population. About 2 million Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians fled to US, known as “boat people”.

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48 Results of Vietnam 58,000 US dead, 300,000 wounded, 2,500 listed as POW & MIA. – Many have never come home. – No victory parades, no celebrations for returning troops. War cost US $150 billion. Millions of Vietnamese dead Veterans groups began raising funds to build memorial. – Designed by 21-year old Maya Ling Lin. Vietnam Wall completed in 1982.

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57 Vietnam Nurses’ Memorial


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