Presentation on theme: "The End of the War. Setting the Scene Before the election he said he had a secret plan to get out of the war. A year after the election, Nixon was still."— Presentation transcript:
Setting the Scene Before the election he said he had a secret plan to get out of the war. A year after the election, Nixon was still seeking- and receiving- the support of Middle America. Also aware of the increasing opposition to the war.
Nixon’s Vietnam Policy May of ‘68- The Paris peace talks- failed to produce an agreement. So in June ’69- President Nixon announces a new policy known as Vietnamization- removing American troops and replace them with S. Vietnamese soldiers. By 1972- American troop strength dropped to 24,000. Sound familiar?
What to do? As much as Nixon wanted to please the protesters at home by pulling out troops he also was still determined to win the war. Nixon orders secret bombing raids.
The war spreads to Cambodia April 1970- Nixon announces that U.S. and South Vietnamese troops were moving into Cambodia. Goal was to clear out the Communist camps. He knew it would not win the war but it would help when negotiating peace.
The Pentagon Papers 1971- New York Times begins publishing articles about American involvement in Vietnam They revealed that the government had lied to Congress and the American people about the war. President’s were making secret policy decisions and waging an undercover war in North Vietnam in the early 60’s.
Nixon calls for law and order Nixon wants to get away from the chaos and violence of the protest movement. He knew that antiwar protesters, the counterculture and student radicals had never appealed to many Americans. Nixon refers to them as the silent majority. It is time for them to be heard.
Kent State University (Ohio) U.S. invasion of Cambodia in 1970 fueled the protest movements on college campuses. At Kent State students react angrily, broke windows downtown and burned the ROTC building.
Then… Governor of Ohio orders the National Guard to Kent State. Tensions mount Students throw rocks at the Guardsmen and then the National Guard load their guns and put on their gas masks.
Kent State continued They hurl tear gas at the students and order them to disperse. Guardsmen retreat to another position. Then suddenly they turn and begin firing on the students. 4 students are dead and 9 wounded (2 of the dead were not protesting) Similar violence also at Jackson State.
The American Withdrawal The war dragged on as did the Paris peace talks. 1972 election year- Nixon announced that N. Vietnam had refused to accept a proposed settlement. Then N. Vietnam began a major assault on S. Vietnam. So Nixon orders the most intensive bombing campaigns of the war.
Henry Kissinger- National Security Advisor Days before the election states that “Peace is at hand”. January 1973, United States, North and South Vietnam and the Viet Cong sign a formal agreement in Paris.
Provisions of the Agreement 1.The U.S. would withdraw all its forces from South Vietnam within 60 days. 2.All prisoners of war would be released 3.All parties to the agreement would end military activities in Laos and Cambodia 4.The 17 th parallel would continue to divide North and South Vietnam until the country could be reunited. important
Aftermath of the war in Asia American involvement in the war ended in 1973, but the fighting between North and South Vietnam continued for another 2 years. America believed that we could defend the world from communism. We also believed that our technology and money would always bring victory. Vietnam proved these assumptions to be false.
South Vietnam falls After the US left, South Vietnamese troops lose ground. 1975- N. Vietnam launches strikes at S. Vietnamese cities. With Saigon as the final target. April 1975 Saigon is surrounded. US evacuates 1,000 Americans and 6,000 Vietnamese to offshore aircraft carriers.
On April 30, 1975 North Vietnam conquers South Vietnam. Vietnam is now a single nation under a Communist government.
Southeast Asia after the War The U.S. believes in the domino theory and with the North Vietnamese victory 2 dominoes will fall- Laos and Cambodia. But that is all. In Cambodia- the Khmer Rouge, a communist group led by Pol Pot, takes over.
Khmer Rouge Declared war on anyone tainted with western ways. Killed 1.5 million Cambodians (1/4 of the Cambodian population) Many shot, starved or put in labor camps. B.R.A.C.K.
And in Communist Vietnam They force many into re-education camps 1.5 million flee by boat. Many trying to make their way to the United States.
The Legacy of War 58,000 Americans dead 300,000 wounded 2,500 Americans listed as POW’s- prisoners of war and MIA’s- missing in action
“It’s easy to die but hard to live, and we’ll show you just how hard it is to live.” --N. Vietnamese prison guard
The reception home (no parades…) This image is of a WWII parade welcoming home the soldiers. When the soldiers returned home from Vietnam there was no parade. Some were spit on, others were called “baby killers”… Most wanted to get home and forget about the war. They felt unappreciated for their sacrifices.
Counting the Costs This was the longest and least successful war for the U.S. We spent at least $150 billion on the war.
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial This war divided our nation just like the Civil War. After many years we realized that something was forgotten, the veterans should be honored. The Wall displays every name of those who died in Vietnam.
The Comparisons There are so many comparisons between the Vietnam War and the War in Iraq. Let’s name a few. 1.We begin with a slow buildup 2.We put Diem in charge of the South- then he does a bad job- then he is assassinated (by the US?). What will happen to those put in charge of Iraq? 3.The US gets caught up in “can we win?” or “how can we get out?” 4.Constant criticism at home splits the country. This sounds like an extended response question
5. US troops have been brutal to prisoners. 6. Television coverage is constant 7. Presidential popularity falls to record lows. 8. Student protests are not big with the War in Iraq. Why? 9. Is this now a Civil War? Should we stay out? 10. Vietnamization- Iraqization? 11. If we leave will a new genocide begin?
Getting into a war is not an easy thing for any president to do. Getting out of the war is even harder.