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Immigration and Culture Unit I. What is an emigrant? An emigrant leaves their land to live in another country. The person is emigrating to another country.

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Culture Unit I. What is an emigrant? An emigrant leaves their land to live in another country. The person is emigrating to another country."— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration and Culture Unit I

2 What is an emigrant? An emigrant leaves their land to live in another country. The person is emigrating to another country Illustration of Irish emigrants aboard ship on their way to America

3 What is an immigrant? An immigrant is a person who once resided somewhere else and now lives in your country. Immigrants at Ellis Island after arriving in America

4 What is a Refugee? A refugee is an exile who flees for safety Refugees fleeing Civil War in Southern Sudan

5 What is a Displaced Person? A displaced person is a person who has been forced to leave his or her native place Young Pakistani, Internally Displaced Person's from military operations

6 What is Nativism? Nativism is a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants

7 Are Native Americans displaced people or refugees? Write a 1 or 2 paragraph response and be ready to share your ideas with the class through class discussion. Writing Prompt:

8 “The Age of Jackson” Popular hero of War of 1812 Became President in 1828 Indian Removal Act relocated 5 tribes from southeast Cherokee Choctaw Chickasaw Seminole Creek “Trail of Tears”

9 Group Activity: Your group will research one of the 5 Native American groups (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, or Creek) displaced by the Indian Removal Act. Research your assigned group using the following questions as a guide: 1.What was the people’s original culture? 2.Why was the group removed from its original homeland? 3.What did the group experience during the removal? 4.How did the tribe adapt to its new home in Indian territory? Each group must prepare a brief report to the class based on its research including illustrations and maps.

10 Indian Removal Act

11 Transcontinental Railroad California Gold Rush 1849 Agriculture cut off from rest of the country Pacific Railroad Act (1862) Union Pacific from Omaha west Central Pacific from Sacramento east Completed in 1869 – Promontory, Utah

12 Transcontinental Railroad

13 Irish Immigrants – Union Pacific Railroad workers

14 Chinese Immigrants – Central Pacific workers

15 Chinese Immigrants Nativism and Discrimination Gold rush in California Building of Transcontinental RR Chinese Exclusion Act – 1822 The Act excluded Chinese "skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining" from entering the country for ten years under penalty of imprisonment and deportation.




19 May 10, 1869 – Promontory, Utah By the end of the 1800’s four more railroads crossed the country

20 Homestead Act of 1862 160 acres of public land free had to settle and farm the land for 5 years thousands moved west (including immigrants) Oklahoma Land Rush – 1889 2 million acres of Creek & Seminole land 50,000 settlers 1 year later 260,000 in Oklahoma territory 1890- millions of acres of Sioux land in SD






26 The Second Great Removal 1871- Federal Government Decree: All Western Native American Nations must agree to relocate Northern plains Nations were assigned to western half of present day South Dakota Southern plains Nations were assigned to what is now Oklahoma Once placed on the reservation they had to accept the federal government as guardian

27 The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 Ended practice of treating each Indian nation separately Native Americans lost two rights: 1.Could no longer negotiate treaties to protect their lands 2.Could no longer vote on laws governing their fate Dawes Act decreed that parcels of land be given to individuals, not nations Severalty: a separate and individual right to possession or ownership that is not shared with any other person.

28 More about the Dawes Act: Clear attempt to break down Native American loyalty to their own nations Each family was allowed 160 acres (many reformers saw this as a good thing, compared it to the Emancipation Proclamation) Left over land was sold to white settlers Native American children sent to government boarding schools Effect? within 20 years Native Americans retained only 20% of their original reservation lands

29 Americanization and Assimilation Male Carlisle School Students 1879. Parents often coerced into sending children “assimilation through total immersion” Forced to abandon their Native American identity new haircuts European-American style clothes new English names forbidden to speak their native language (even with each other) required to attend Christian churches


31 Native American group of Carlisle Indian Industrial School Male and Female Students

32 Portrait of Native Americans from the Cherokee, Cheyenne, Choctaw, Comanche, Iroquois, and Muscogee tribes in American attire. Photos dates from 1868 to 1924.

33 Writing Prompt: What happens to culture when people are forced to assimilate? Write a 1 or 2 paragraph response and be ready to share your ideas with the class through class discussion.

34 What are Push/Pull Factors? Push Factors: Conditions that drive people to leave their homes Examples: Land scarce in home country Political and/or religious persecution Revolutions Poverty Pull Factors: Conditions that attract people to a new area Examples: Promise of freedom (religious and political) Hope for a new life Jobs/ Industry Land “Streets paved with gold”

35 Immigration in America Four Major Eras 1.Colonial 2.Mid- 19 th Century 3.Turn of the 20 th Century 4.Post 1965 1. Colonial Period (less than 1 million) During the seventeenth century, approximately 175,000 Englishmen migrated to Colonial America Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants

36 2. Mid 19 th Century “Old Immigration” 1830 to 1860: Mostly Irish and German 1860 to 1890: still mainly Northern Europeans (England, Germany, Scandinavia) many came to settle the frontier near growing railroads

37 Many Americans welcomed these “old immigrants” as an asset to America as they were: workers for factories, mines, railroad farmers for the west consumers for agricultural and industrial products men with special abilities and talents additional manpower for military easily assimilated in American society Exception: Irish & Chinese

38 German Immigrants early to mid 19 th century fleeing economic hardships and autocratic government “old immigrants” better shape economically than Irish – arrived with some resources pushed out to the mid-west and set up model farms prospered quickly strong supporters of public schools

39 Nativism: Antiforeignism: Keep immigrants out! Immigrants were blamed for such things as: the corruption of city government low industrial wages degradation of life in the cities

40 Reading Quiz (10 points) 1.What group of people did the Know-Nothing Party regard as superstitious, ignorant, and dominated by Rome? 2. What event in the 1860’s caused the nativist movement to virtually disappear for a few years? 3. In the late 1800’s, nativists claimed that people from which sections ( regions) of Europe lacked intelligence and motivation? 4. A resurgence of which organization in the 1920’s led to a renewal of anti-Catholicism and anti-Semitism? 5. Why did labor unions fight for restrictions on immigration?

41 Nativism and Discrimination Irish Immigrants people were Ireland’s greatest export poor, uneducated Roman Catholic (mistrusted) faced discrimination stayed in Eastern cities (too poor to go west) “The Know-Nothings” – smear campaign stuck together became politically powerful

42 The New York TimesThe New York Times want ad 1854

43 An Irish thug and a Catholic priest carve up the Democratic Party goose that laid the golden eggs. Thomas Nast – Harper’s Weekly

44 'Look here, you, everybody else is quiet and peaceable, and you're all the time a-kicking up a row!'" Caption: "Uncle Sam's Lodging House" Source: Puck Date: June 7, 1882

45 "the raw Irishman in America is a nuisance, his son a curse. They never assimilate; the second generation simply shows an intensification of all the bad qualities of the first....They are a burden and a misery to this country." Further, Irish had corrupted our politics, lowered the standards of domestic service, and waged an "imbecilic and indecent war" against the English government. The time had come to clear the Irishman from Uncle Sam's lodging house, where all races and nationalities, except the Irish, got along with each other! Puck June 7, 1882

46 Push Factors: Irish: no self rule and potato famine Germans: after revolution of 1848 Italians and Greeks: fled poverty Austrians and Russians: fled heavy taxation and military service Jews: fled persecution

47 3. Turn of the 20 th Century “New Immigration” 1890 to 1920 mostly southern and eastern Europeans: Italy, Greece, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Poland came in much larger numbers than earlier immigrants largely poor and illiterate – fleeing European cities “birds of passage” – stayed short time, worked, and returned settled mainly in cities near factories NOT frontier had more difficulty assimilating as they were different from Americans – tried to preserve “Old Country” traditions largely Roman Catholic or Jewish native-born Americans feared immigrants would try to “establish” the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism

48 Opposition to “New Immigrants” Reasons to Oppose the New Immigrants: with the frontier closed, there was no land for them new immigrants competed for jobs that should belong to Americans they were harder to “Americanize” and had little education they created ghettos and felt no need to learn American ways they were “inferior” to Old Immigrants (Nordic Supremacy)

49 New York Harbor Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island Point of entry for millions of European immigrants

50 Ellis Island New York Harbor was the gateway for millions of immigrants to the United States nation's busiest immigration station from 1892 to 1954 12 million immigrants

51 Ellis Island Today, over 100 million Americans - one third of the population – can trace their ancestry to the immigrants who first arrived in America at Ellis Island Peak year at Ellis Island was 1907, with 1,004,756 immigrants processed All-time daily high occurred on April 17, 1907, when 11,747 immigrants arrived Those immigrants who were approved spent from two to five hours at Ellis Island Arrivals were asked 29 questions including name, occupation, and the amount of money carried Those with visible health problems or diseases were sent home or held in the island's hospital facilities for long periods of time Some unskilled workers were rejected because they were considered "likely to become a public charge."

52 Ellis Island Denied admission to the U.S. and sent back to their countries of origin for reasons such as: - having a chronic contagious disease - criminal background - insanity "The Island of Tears" or "Heartbreak Island"

53 Group Activity: “Old vs. New Immigrants” Immigrant GroupsImmigrant Groups – link to immigration by country of origin Research and answer the following questions dealing with your assigned immigrant group 1.During what time period (years) did the greatest number of people come to America? 2.What were the push/pull factors that led to their leaving home and coming to America? 3.Where did they settle? 4.What types of jobs did they hold after coming to America? 5.What was the reaction of Americans to their arrival? 6.What effect did their religion have on their assimilation into American life?

54 CountryPeak Year Germany Ireland Britain Italy Russia Austria-Hungary Denmark Finland Norway Sweden France Greece Portugal Turkey Holland

55 European Immigration 1820-1920 CountryTotal Germany5,500,000 Ireland4,400,000 Italy4,190,000 Austria-Hungary3,700,000 Russia3,250,000 England2,500,000 Sweden1,000,000 Norway730,000 Scotland570,000 France530,000 Greece350,000 Turkey320,000 Denmark300,000 Switzerland258,000 Portugal210.000 Holland200,000 Belgium140,000 Spain130,000 Rumania80,000 Wales75,000 Bulgaria60,000

56 Immigration and Illiteracy Year of Arrival in the United States Unable to read or write in any language 189683,196 189744,580 189844,773 189961,468 190095,673 1901120,645 1902165,105 1903189,008 1904172,856 1905239,091 1906269,823 1907343,402


58 Postwar Turmoil Chapter 11

59 Welcome To All Early 1880’s

60 1890’s

61 The Red Scare Anti Communist panic that swept the US in 1919 and 1920 Two small Communist parties had formed in the US by 1919 ( 1/10 of 1% of population) Fear that a Communist revolution like in Russia might happen here During WWI the Germans were hated, after the war hatred spread to anyone born in another country

62 Sacco and Vanzetti Italian immigrants Radicals who advocated a political and social revolution, anarchism - restraint of one person by another is evil - do not recognize the authority of any government Convicted of robbery and murder of shoe factory guard and paymaster Many people thought they were “railroaded” due to their political beliefs

63 A Climate of Fear A.Mitchell Palmer President Wilson’s attorney general Worried about the Bolshevik theory that promoted violent revolution June 2, 1919 - bombs explodes in 8 cities across US - one in front of Palmer’s home in DC - evidence the bomber was Italian immigrant and anarchist Within the Justice Dep’t, he started the General Intelligence Division - investigate domestic radical activities

64 The Palmer Raids November, 1919 – raids on the Union of Russian Workers in 12 cities December, 1919 – 249 aliens were deported to Russia, “The Soviet Ark” - most not terrorists or criminals but only favored nonviolent radical causes January, 1920 - more than 4,000 people (many US citizens) arrested in 33 major cities in one night - many were denied legal council, food, water, heat bathroom facilities Series of raids targeting suspected anarchists and immigrants who were considered to be a “threat” to America

65 The Palmer Raids Some critics challenged the raids calling them un- American American public was generally supportive By summer of 1920, the Red Scare seemed to be over Raids and deportations served to demoralize American radicals Businesses had broken a rash of strikes Bolshevism had failed to spread beyond Russia

66 Labor Unrest In the middle of the Red Scare Outbreak of strikes Brought threat of revolution uncomfortably close to home

67 Coal Strike of 1919 Lasted for 1 month in the late fall Threatened to paralyze country Needed coal to heat homes and to run factories 394,000 coalminers were given a presidential order to go back to work Miners won none of their demands and returned to the same working conditions

68 The Seattle General Strike Seattle General Strike - 1919 Started with striking workers in shipyards Led to other unions within the city striking in sympathy Domino effect – before long it became a city-wide strike affecting most unionized workers “ There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” Calvin Coolidge

69 Closing the Doors Red Scare, Palmer Raids echoed in mainstream America Quota system in 1921 3% of number of people in the U.S. from that country according to 1910 census National Origins Act, 1924 – excluded Asians altogether and reduced percentage to 2% By 1930’s immigration slowed to a trickle

70 The Great Migration Between 1916 and 1920, half a million African Americans left the South for new jobs in the North Many were WWI veterans who resented discrimination they experienced during the war Began to seek better opportunities in the North Chicago Defender – newspaper that gave blacks information about living conditions and jobs in the North

71 Better Pay for African Americans Between 1910 and 1930 African American populations in northern cities swelled Chicago: from 44,000 to 235,000 Cleveland: from 8,500 to 68,000 Many Northern whites reacted violently to the Great Migration The Great Migration

72 Racial Unrest In 1917, race riots in 26 Northern cities 1919 race riot in Washington DC Southern blacks were competing with whites in the North for jobs Newspaper accounts of rumored black violence fueled the flames -200 sailors and marines beat blacks -exchanged gunfire -Wilson called in federal troops -4 killed, 11 wounded -300 people arrested -Marcus Garvey

73 The Ku Klux Klan The Klan made a strong resurgence in the 1920’s in all parts of the country with attacks against Blacks, Jews, Catholics, immigrants Goal? guard against U.S. becoming “impure” Became strong in northern cities such as Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Indianapolis where many African Americans had recently migrated

74 THE DUST BOWL A severe drought gripped the Great Plains in the early 1930s Wind scattered the topsoil, exposing sand and grit The resulting dust traveled hundreds of miles One storm in 1934 picked up millions of tons of dust from the Plains an carried it to the East Coast Kansas Farmer, 1933

75 Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas - 1934

76 Storm approaching Elkhart, Kansas in 1937

77 Dust buried cars and wagons in South Dakota in 1936

78 Photographer Dorothea Lange captures a family headed west to escape the dust storms


80 HARDEST HIT REGIONS Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado were the hardest hit regions during the Dust Bowl Many farmers migrated to California and other Pacific Coast states Became known as Oakies Boy covers his mouth to avoid dust, 1935

81 RURAL LIFE DURING THE DEPRESSION While the Depression was difficult for everyone, farmers did have one advantage; they could grow food for their families Thousands of farmers, however, lost their land Many turned to tenant farming and barely scraped out a living Between 1929-1932 almost ½ million farmers lost their land

82 On The Farms due to the many foreclosures banks would auction off many farm properties farmers often staged Penny Auctions to save their neighbor’s farms neighbors would bid a couple of dollars for a property and return it to the original owners would intimidate outside buyers from bidding

83 Tenant Farmers Mostly lived in South and didn’t own the land As Depression lingered the government paid farmers to let their land go unfarmed This reduced surplus crops, raised demand and prices Many tenant farmers were thrown off the land where they had lived and worked their entire lives

84 Internment of Japanese Americans During WWII More than 100,000 Japanese – Americans moved from their homes to relocation camps February, 1942 – Government moved all Japanese-Americans to camps in western states Forced to sell property and possessions Stark living conditions in military barracks Supreme Court supported the plan saying it did not violate civil rights Later ruled couldn’t be held once their loyalty was established – camps were being dismantled by then

85 Hispanic Americans Americans who have come from or descended from people who have come from Spanish speaking lands Fastest growing group in the country 3 million in 1960 15 million in 1980 27 million in 1995 44 million today

86 Hispanic Americans Five Major Groups: Mexican Americans Puerto Rican Americans Cuban Americans Those from Central America Those from South America Issues? Lack of political representation due to Hispanic diversity

87 Bracero program: farm workers with temporary papers started in WWII (until 1965) Undocumented immigrants – people who lack legal papers Exploitation/Fear of deportation Mexican Americans More than 1 million fled following Mexico’s 1910 Revolution Others trace ancestry to Mexican War 1840’s Many maintained ties with relatives in Mexico, moved back and forth

88 Puerto Ricans Since Puerto Rico is a possession of the U.S., Puerto Ricans may enter this country as citizens Large numbers moved to the U.S. in the years following WWII throughout the 1960’s &70’s Large population in cities, particularly New York City

89 Cuban Americans Many arrived after Fidel Castro overthrew the government in 1959 Many more following the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 Second migration between 1965 and 1970 Large numbers settled in Miami as well as large cities such as New York Many faced few problems establishing themselves, left for political (not economic reasons)

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