Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Reform Attempts and Conflicts of the Empire in the First Half of the 19th century After the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Reform Attempts and Conflicts of the Empire in the First Half of the 19th century After the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reform Attempts and Conflicts of the Empire in the First Half of the 19th century After the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire declared war to its northern neighbour ( Ottoman-Russian War). Austria joined soon with Russia against the Ottomans and the Ottoman armies had been defeated in different fronts. After the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire declared war to its northern neighbour ( Ottoman-Russian War). Austria joined soon with Russia against the Ottomans and the Ottoman armies had been defeated in different fronts. However, Austria, anxious about the French Revolution, sued for peace with the Sublime Porte and the Treaty of Zistovi was signed in 1791 acknowledging the former border with a minor gain for Austrians. However, Austria, anxious about the French Revolution, sued for peace with the Sublime Porte and the Treaty of Zistovi was signed in 1791 acknowledging the former border with a minor gain for Austrians.

2 After Russian military successes, the following year, the Ottoman Empire had to sign the Treaty of Jassy in which it recognized officially the annexation of Crimea into the Russian Empire. After Russian military successes, the following year, the Ottoman Empire had to sign the Treaty of Jassy in which it recognized officially the annexation of Crimea into the Russian Empire. In 1789, the young and reformist Selim III succeeded Abdulhamid I after the death of the latter. In 1789, the young and reformist Selim III succeeded Abdulhamid I after the death of the latter. Selim III ( ) founded immediately a new European style army called Nizam-ı Cedid (the New Order) in Selim III ( ) founded immediately a new European style army called Nizam-ı Cedid (the New Order) in 1793.

3 The new army proved its efficiency at the Battle of Akka in 1799 ironically against the Napoleonic French army which had helped its foundation. However, during the Ottoman-Russian War, it could not change the outcome. The new army proved its efficiency at the Battle of Akka in 1799 ironically against the Napoleonic French army which had helped its foundation. However, during the Ottoman-Russian War, it could not change the outcome. In 1807, as a result of a large Janissary revolt in Istanbul, Selim III was dethroned and killed, and the Nizam-ı Cedid army was disbanded. The next year, a more fortunate reformer Sultan Mahmud II was enthroned. In 1807, as a result of a large Janissary revolt in Istanbul, Selim III was dethroned and killed, and the Nizam-ı Cedid army was disbanded. The next year, a more fortunate reformer Sultan Mahmud II was enthroned.

4 Mahmud II signed the Sened-i Ittifak (the Bill of Alliance) with the powerful provincial notables in the same year, delimiting the power of these latter. Mahmud II signed the Sened-i Ittifak (the Bill of Alliance) with the powerful provincial notables in the same year, delimiting the power of these latter. He also re-founded the former Nizam-ı Cedid army with a new name, Sekban-ı Cedid in He also re-founded the former Nizam-ı Cedid army with a new name, Sekban-ı Cedid in However, with a new revolt janissaries killed the Grand vizir Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, and forced the Sultan to disband the Sekban-ı Cedid in the same year. However, with a new revolt janissaries killed the Grand vizir Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, and forced the Sultan to disband the Sekban-ı Cedid in the same year.

5 The Ottoman Russian War ended in 1812 by the Treaty of Bucarest, acknowledging the annexation of Bessarabia into the Russian Empire and the autonomy of Serbia. The Ottoman Russian War ended in 1812 by the Treaty of Bucarest, acknowledging the annexation of Bessarabia into the Russian Empire and the autonomy of Serbia. In 1821, a Greek rebellion organized by the Etnik-i Eterya started in Wallachia where there was a large Greek minority. This first uprisal was unsuccessful and immediately suppressed, however, a second and larger one commenced in the same year in Pelloponesia. In 1821, a Greek rebellion organized by the Etnik-i Eterya started in Wallachia where there was a large Greek minority. This first uprisal was unsuccessful and immediately suppressed, however, a second and larger one commenced in the same year in Pelloponesia.

6 Due to the inefficiency of the Janissary corps and the considerable naval force of the rebels, the Porte was unable to suppress the rebllion and asked the assistance of the powerful governor of Egypt, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, with a promise of the governorships of Crete and Peloponnesia. Due to the inefficiency of the Janissary corps and the considerable naval force of the rebels, the Porte was unable to suppress the rebllion and asked the assistance of the powerful governor of Egypt, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, with a promise of the governorships of Crete and Peloponnesia. In 1826, Mahmud II, with the help of the people of Istanbul, annihilated the Janissary corps (Vaka-yı Hayriye) and founded another European style new army called this time Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye in order to please the conservative and religious circles. In 1826, Mahmud II, with the help of the people of Istanbul, annihilated the Janissary corps (Vaka-yı Hayriye) and founded another European style new army called this time Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye in order to please the conservative and religious circles.

7 With a large fleet and a European style expeditionary corps led by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, son of Mehmed Ali, the rebellion was pacified, but with the surprise attack of the Russian-British-French naval forces to the joint Ottoman-Egyptian fleets at Navarino in 1827, the Ottoman-Egyptian forces suffered heavy losses and lost the naval mastery in the Aegean. With a large fleet and a European style expeditionary corps led by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, son of Mehmed Ali, the rebellion was pacified, but with the surprise attack of the Russian-British-French naval forces to the joint Ottoman-Egyptian fleets at Navarino in 1827, the Ottoman-Egyptian forces suffered heavy losses and lost the naval mastery in the Aegean.Attention Metternich’s conservative and monarchist Europe was now overtly supporting a revolutionary movement!

8 Following this undeclared action of hostility, the Porte declared war to Russia in 1828, starting the Ottoman-Russian War. Following this undeclared action of hostility, the Porte declared war to Russia in 1828, starting the Ottoman-Russian War. Ottomans, with a newly established army and without navy were defeated soundly in the Balkanic and Caucasian fronts and the Russian armies reached Edirne and Erzurum. Ottomans, with a newly established army and without navy were defeated soundly in the Balkanic and Caucasian fronts and the Russian armies reached Edirne and Erzurum.

9 Mahmud II sued for peace with Russia. By the Treaty of Edirne of 1829, the Sublime Porte had to recognize the independence of the newly established Greek kingdom, gave autonomy to Wallachia and Moldova and accepted to pay a war indemnity to Russia. Mahmud II sued for peace with Russia. By the Treaty of Edirne of 1829, the Sublime Porte had to recognize the independence of the newly established Greek kingdom, gave autonomy to Wallachia and Moldova and accepted to pay a war indemnity to Russia. The following year France occupied Algeria and Mehmed Ali Pasha of Egypt refused to help Istanbul against Russia and demanded the governorship of Syria as a compensation of the loss of promised Peloponnesia and his fleet. Mahmud II refused these demands. The following year France occupied Algeria and Mehmed Ali Pasha of Egypt refused to help Istanbul against Russia and demanded the governorship of Syria as a compensation of the loss of promised Peloponnesia and his fleet. Mahmud II refused these demands.

10 Mehmed Ali sent a large and modern army against Syria under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha. The latter invaded successfully the whole Syria and entered Anatolia, defeating two Ottoman armies consecutively in Adana and Konya. Mehmed Ali sent a large and modern army against Syria under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha. The latter invaded successfully the whole Syria and entered Anatolia, defeating two Ottoman armies consecutively in Adana and Konya.Attention There was no Ottoman force left in Anatolia to protect the imperial capital!

11 Mahmud II asked the assistance of Britain and France against Kavalalı’s army which had already reached Kütahya, they refused. The Sultan repeated the same demand to the Tsar, who accepted and sent a Russian fleet to Istanbul to prevent its capture by the Egyptian army. Mahmud II asked the assistance of Britain and France against Kavalalı’s army which had already reached Kütahya, they refused. The Sultan repeated the same demand to the Tsar, who accepted and sent a Russian fleet to Istanbul to prevent its capture by the Egyptian army. Mahmud II and Mehmed Ali Pasha signed in 1833 the Treaty of Kütahya, by which the governorships of Egypt and Crete were officialy left to Mehmed Ali and of Jeddah to Ibrahim Pashas. Additionally the right of levying taxes in the province of Adana was also given to Ibrahim Pasha. Mahmud II and Mehmed Ali Pasha signed in 1833 the Treaty of Kütahya, by which the governorships of Egypt and Crete were officialy left to Mehmed Ali and of Jeddah to Ibrahim Pashas. Additionally the right of levying taxes in the province of Adana was also given to Ibrahim Pasha.

12 In 1833, The Porte also signed a treaty of alliance with Russia at Hünkar Iskelesi, in Istanbul, which was to be valid for 8 years and according to which Russia would sent its fleet and land forces to the help of the Ottomans in case of an agression against the latter and the Porte would close the Straits in case of an agression against Russia. In 1833, The Porte also signed a treaty of alliance with Russia at Hünkar Iskelesi, in Istanbul, which was to be valid for 8 years and according to which Russia would sent its fleet and land forces to the help of the Ottomans in case of an agression against the latter and the Porte would close the Straits in case of an agression against Russia. In 1839, Britain encouraged Mahmud II to wage war against the French-backed Egypt. The newly established Ottoman army was once again defeated by the forces of Ibrahim Pasha at the Battle of Nizip in the same year. In 1839, Britain encouraged Mahmud II to wage war against the French-backed Egypt. The newly established Ottoman army was once again defeated by the forces of Ibrahim Pasha at the Battle of Nizip in the same year.

13 Attention The Treaty of Hünkar Iskelesi would be valid under such circumstances. Meanwhile, Mahmud II passed away and his son Abdulmedjid succeeded him. Meanwhile, Mahmud II passed away and his son Abdulmedjid succeeded him. The Ottoman fleet left Istanbul and fled to Egypt. The Ottoman fleet left Istanbul and fled to Egypt. The situation was catastrophic and Britain and France, anxious about a Russian control over Istanbul and Straits, intervened. The situation was catastrophic and Britain and France, anxious about a Russian control over Istanbul and Straits, intervened.

14 On the 3rd of November, 1839, with the advise of Mustafa Reshid Pasha, the Ottoman foreign minister, the “Tanzimat (Reorganization)” Rescript was proclaimed in Gülhane, İstanbul, acknowledging the equality of all Ottoman subjects, from all races and creeds. On the 3rd of November, 1839, with the advise of Mustafa Reshid Pasha, the Ottoman foreign minister, the “Tanzimat (Reorganization)” Rescript was proclaimed in Gülhane, İstanbul, acknowledging the equality of all Ottoman subjects, from all races and creeds.


Download ppt "Reform Attempts and Conflicts of the Empire in the First Half of the 19th century After the annexation of Crimea to the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google