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Chapter 21 Lincoln called for volunteers and he thought for just 90 days Lincoln wanted a limited war that would not interfere with slavery Quick War Bull.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Lincoln called for volunteers and he thought for just 90 days Lincoln wanted a limited war that would not interfere with slavery Quick War Bull."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 Lincoln called for volunteers and he thought for just 90 days Lincoln wanted a limited war that would not interfere with slavery Quick War Bull Run 30,000 Union forces drilling near DC in summer of 1861-not prepared for battle yet Lincoln ordered action-Bull run & on to Richmond July 21, 1861 battle started off well for Union-Stonewall Jackson’s men held firm and reinforcements came-Panic hit the Union and they fled Victory bad for the South/Good for North

2 McClellan McClellan put in charge of Army of the Patomac-great organizer and drill master-didn’t like battle Always thought enemy outnumbered him-poor intelligence- degrading to Lincoln-Finally ordered to act Peninsular Campaign-Spring of 1862 McClellan inched towards Richmond w/ 100,000 Lincoln diverted McClellan’s forces to to chase “Stonewall” from DC Lee launched an attack-7 Day’s Battle-June 26-July Drove McClellan back to sea-Lee lost 20,000-McClellan 10,000 McClellan replaced Lee saved the South & slavery temporarily-War would drag on and the war would eventually be over slavery-Lincoln began to draft Emancipation

3 6 Part Strategy Suffocate South, Liberate Slaves to undermine economy of South, Cut Confederacy in half by taking Mississippi, Chop Confederacy into pieces, Decapitate by taking capital, try to engage enemy & grind to submission War at Sea Blockade started leakily-simplified by concentrating on main ports Britain warned its shippers & told them to go at their own peril Did not want to hurt future blockades Merrimack/Monitor

4 Antietam Lee moved northward-2nd Bull Run-Aug blasted Gen Pope’s troops & thrust into Maryland Lincoln reinstated McClellan-2 Union soldiers found a copy of Confederate plans-halted Lee at Antietam Sept The Battle of militarily a draw-Bloodiest 1 day battle of the war- McClellan did not pursue Lee and fired again Decisive battle as England and France were ready to join until Union showed some success at Antietam Long awaited victory for Lincoln also as he was waiting to make public the Emancipation Proclamation-Official document released Jan. 1, 1863-Changed the scope of the war.

5 Emancipation Proclamation Slaves in states in rebellion forever free Border States? Did the Act free anyone? Slaves flocked to invading Union-strengthened moral cause of the Union-foreshadowed the doom of slavery-13th Amendment No negotiated settlement-fight to the finish Some opposition in North-desertions increased-Republicans lost seats in the off-year elections No future European aid for South

6 Blacks Battle Bondage Lincoln took steps to enlist blacks Some protests-180,000 served by end of war-most from slave states-10% of total enlistments for Union Hearts in the war-500 engagements-22 medals of honor-38,000 died-most captured were put to death-not until 1864 did South treat as prisoners of war Confederacy would not enlist blacks until one month before the war ended-tens of thousands forced into labor battalions Many slaves fled plantations-especially as Union moved through

7 Gettysburg Replaced McClellan w/Burnside-frontal attack at Fredericksburg failed-Dec over 10,000 Union casualties Burnside replaced by Hooker-Chancellorsville May 2-4, Lee divided forces & sent Jackson to Hooker’s flank-Success! Jackson killed Lee decided to invade the North again-Pennsylvania George Meade replaces Hooker & takes position on a low ridge near Gettysburg-92,000 Union & 76,000 Confederates Disaster for the South-began sending peace feelers Address by Lincoln

8 War in West The Fighter U.S. Grant Captured Fts. Henry and Donelson in Tennessee in Feb, secured Kentucky Went after main N/S-E/W railway junction at Corinth, Mississippi Confederate forces stopped him at Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 Spring 1862 Farragut & North Navy seized N. Orleans Narrow entrance to Eastern Confederacy-Through Vicksbug, Mississippi came cattle and vital supplies Grant given command of forces attacking Vicksburg- surrendered July 4, 1863-South severed-1 day after Gettysburg Helped to shut up Northern peace protesters

9 Sherman and Georgia Grant transferred to East-by end of 1863 Grant had liberated Tennessee & opened path to Georgia-made General in Chief W.T. Sherman took over Georgia-captured Atlanta in Sept, 1864 & burned city to the ground Left supply lines and lived off the land 60,000 forces cut a 60 mile wide swath of destruction Wanted to destroy the Confederate supply lines and weaken morale “Total War”-Lack of discipline at times After Savannah-headed to S. Carolina & was even more destructive-burned Columbia-ended in N. Carolina when war ended

10 Politics of War 1864 Election-Lincoln had problems w/in his own party Radical wing was constantly challenging him-Conduct of War Salmon P. Chase Northern Democrats dangerous also-some associated with secessionists Extremists were “Copperheads”-attacked war and even more after emancipation

11 Election of 1864 Lincoln needed to keep Republican support-joined with War Democrats and proclaimed the Union Party-Lincoln nominated over Chase Running mate-Andrew Johnson? McClellan nominated by “Copperheads”(Dems) Reelection in doubt-war not going well-atmosphere changed- Atlanta key!! Lincoln won close election(Popular vote) When Lincoln won-desertions piled up for Confederacy

12 Grant Outlasts Lee Lincoln needed a general who would pursue-Grant was the man Wilderness Campaign-huge casualties-poor decisions? Confederates sent more peace feelers-Lincoln would accept nothing but Union and Emancipation End came quickly-Union captured Richmond & cornered Lee April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse, VA- Confederates surrendered

13 Assassination of Lincoln April 14, 1865-famous in death Most southerners came to realize his importance in death Same fate as Johnson-Why not? Aftermath 600,000 dead, over 1 million killed or seriously wounded Lost future leaders Lost $15 billion-total cannot be calculated Federal govnmnt stronger than ever Country could endure-Democracy & Liberalism remained Proved itself-by 1867 Britain became a true democracy Slavery abolished Laid the groundwork for equality and freedom to continue to be granted


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