2Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the computer equivalent of a paper sheet. It consists of a grid made from columns and rows.It is an environment that can make number manipulation easy and somewhat painless.
3SpreadsheetThe nice thing about using a spreadsheet is that you can experiment with numbers without having to RE-DO all the calculations.Lets change the interest rate and then the number of months.Let the COMPUTER do the calculations!Once we have the formulas set up, we can change the variables that are called from the formula and watch the changes.
4Spreadsheet Spreadsheets are made up of columns rows and their intersections are called cellsIn each cell there may be the following types of datatext (labels)number data (constants)formulas (mathematical equations that do all the work)
5What is a COLUMN ?In a spreadsheet the COLUMN is defined as the vertical space that is going up and down the window.Letters are used to designate each COLUMN'S location.
6What is a ROW ?In a spreadsheet the ROW is defined as the horizontal space that is going across the window.Numbers are used to designate each ROW'S location.
7What is a CELL ?In a spreadsheet the CELL is defined as the space where a specified row and column intersect.Each CELL is assigned a name according to its COLUMN letter and ROW number.B6
8Types of Data Data types Examples Descriptions Name or Wage or Days LABELName or Wage or Daysanything that is just textCONSTANT5 or 3.75 or -7.4any numberFORMULA=5+3 or = 8*5+3math equation
9Labels in Excel labels : computer ledger car loan interest # of paymentsLabels are text entries.We typically use labels to identify what we are talking about.
10Constants in ExcelConstants are entries that have a specific fixed value.the constants are$12,0009.6%60
11Formulas in ExcelFormulas are entries that have an equation that calculates the value to display.=PMT(C4/12,C5,-C3)
12Formulas in Excel Formulas are mathematical equations. There is a list of the functions available within Excel under the menu+INSERT+ Function.Formulas OR Functions MUST BEGIN with an equal sign (=).We use formulas to CALCULATE a value to be displayed.
13Basic Formulas in Excel Let's look at this equation in B4:= B1 * B2= 23 * 5.36DO YOU KNOW which is BEST and WHY?
14Basic Math Functions Operation Symbol Constant Data Referenced Data 15327486OperationSymbolConstant DataReferenced DataAnswerMultiplication*= 5 * 6= A1 * B330Division/= 8 / 4= A3 / B22Addition+= 4 + 7= B2 + A211Subtraction-= 8 - 3= A3 - B15
15Methods of Selecting Cells To SelectType InClick OnA1click on A1A1, A2, A3A1:A3click on A1 with button down and drag to A3A1, B1A1:B1click on A1 with button down and drag to B1A1, B3click on A1, type in comma, click on B3A1, A2, B1, B2A1:B2click on A1 with button down and drag to B2AB15327486
16Sum FunctionProbably the most popular function in any spreadsheet is the SUM function.The Sum function takes all of the values in each of the specified cells and totals their values.The syntax is:=SUM(first value, second value, etc)
17Sum Function A 1 25 2 50 3 75 4 test 5 Example Cells to ADD Answer =sum(A1:A3)A1, A2, A3150=sum(A1:A3, 100)A1, A2, A3 and 100250=sum(A1+A4)A1, A4#VALUE!=sum(A1:A2, A5)A1, A2, A575
18Average Function The syntax is as follows. =Average (first value, second value, etc.)A1252503754100ExampleCells to averageAnswer=average (A1:A4)A1, A2, A3, A462.5
19Max FunctionThis will return the largest (max) value in the selected range of cells.A1102203304255Example of MaxCells to look atAns. Max=max (A1:A4)A1, A2, A3, A430
20Min FunctionThis will return the smallest (Min) value in the selected range of cells.
21Count FunctionThis will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data) in the selected range of cells.Blank entries are not counted.Text entries are NOT counted.A1102203304test5Example of CountCells to look atAnswer=Count (A1:A4)A1, A2, A3, A43
22CountA FunctionThis will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data OR text data) in the selected range of cells.Blank entries are not Counted.Text entries ARE Counted.
23IF FunctionThe IF function will check the logical condition of a statement and return one value if true and a different value if false.The syntax is=IF (condition, value-if-true, value-if-false)value returned may be either a number or textif value returned is text, it must be in quotes
24IF Function A B 1 Price Over a dollar? 2 $.95 No 3 $1.37 Yes 4 comparing #returning #5140000.08684530.05Example of IFtyped into column BAnswer=IF (A2>1,"Yes","No")No=IF (A3>1, "Yes", "No")Yes=IF (A5>10000, .08, .05).08=IF (A6>10000, .08, .05).05
25PMTCalculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.
26PMT Syntax PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type) Rate is the interest rate for the loan.Nper is the total number of payments for the loan.Pv is the present value, or the total amount that we are borrowing.Fv is the future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (zero), that is, the future value of a loan is 0.Type is the number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.
28COUNTIFCounts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria.Syntax:COUNTIF(range,criteria)Examples:=COUNTIF(A2:A5,"apples")=COUNTIF(B2:B5,">55")
29SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. Syntax: Examples: SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range)Examples:=SUMIF(A2:A5,">160000",B2:B5)
30Array FormulasAn array formula can perform multiple calculations and then return either a single result or multiple results.Array formulas act on two or more sets of values known as array arguments.Each array argument must have the same number of rows and columns.You create array formulas in the same way that you create other formulas, except you press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER to enter the formula.