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EXCEL

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**Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is the computer equivalent of a paper sheet.**

It consists of a grid made from columns and rows. It is an environment that can make number manipulation easy and somewhat painless.

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Spreadsheet The nice thing about using a spreadsheet is that you can experiment with numbers without having to RE-DO all the calculations. Lets change the interest rate and then the number of months. Let the COMPUTER do the calculations! Once we have the formulas set up, we can change the variables that are called from the formula and watch the changes.

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**Spreadsheet Spreadsheets are made up of columns rows**

and their intersections are called cells In each cell there may be the following types of data text (labels) number data (constants) formulas (mathematical equations that do all the work)

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What is a COLUMN ? In a spreadsheet the COLUMN is defined as the vertical space that is going up and down the window. Letters are used to designate each COLUMN'S location.

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What is a ROW ? In a spreadsheet the ROW is defined as the horizontal space that is going across the window. Numbers are used to designate each ROW'S location.

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What is a CELL ? In a spreadsheet the CELL is defined as the space where a specified row and column intersect. Each CELL is assigned a name according to its COLUMN letter and ROW number. B6

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**Types of Data Data types Examples Descriptions Name or Wage or Days**

LABEL Name or Wage or Days anything that is just text CONSTANT 5 or 3.75 or -7.4 any number FORMULA =5+3 or = 8*5+3 math equation

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**Labels in Excel labels : computer ledger car loan interest**

# of payments Labels are text entries. We typically use labels to identify what we are talking about.

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Constants in Excel Constants are entries that have a specific fixed value. the constants are $12,000 9.6% 60

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Formulas in Excel Formulas are entries that have an equation that calculates the value to display. =PMT(C4/12,C5,-C3)

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**Formulas in Excel Formulas are mathematical equations.**

There is a list of the functions available within Excel under the menu+INSERT+ Function. Formulas OR Functions MUST BEGIN with an equal sign (=). We use formulas to CALCULATE a value to be displayed.

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**Basic Formulas in Excel**

Let's look at this equation in B4: = B1 * B2 = 23 * 5.36 DO YOU KNOW which is BEST and WHY?

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**Basic Math Functions Operation Symbol Constant Data Referenced Data**

1 5 3 2 7 4 8 6 Operation Symbol Constant Data Referenced Data Answer Multiplication * = 5 * 6 = A1 * B3 30 Division / = 8 / 4 = A3 / B2 2 Addition + = 4 + 7 = B2 + A2 11 Subtraction - = 8 - 3 = A3 - B1 5

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**Methods of Selecting Cells**

To Select Type In Click On A1 click on A1 A1, A2, A3 A1:A3 click on A1 with button down and drag to A3 A1, B1 A1:B1 click on A1 with button down and drag to B1 A1, B3 click on A1, type in comma, click on B3 A1, A2, B1, B2 A1:B2 click on A1 with button down and drag to B2 A B 1 5 3 2 7 4 8 6

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Sum Function Probably the most popular function in any spreadsheet is the SUM function. The Sum function takes all of the values in each of the specified cells and totals their values. The syntax is: =SUM(first value, second value, etc)

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**Sum Function A 1 25 2 50 3 75 4 test 5 Example Cells to ADD Answer**

=sum(A1:A3) A1, A2, A3 150 =sum(A1:A3, 100) A1, A2, A3 and 100 250 =sum(A1+A4) A1, A4 #VALUE! =sum(A1:A2, A5) A1, A2, A5 75

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**Average Function The syntax is as follows.**

=Average (first value, second value, etc.) A 1 25 2 50 3 75 4 100 Example Cells to average Answer =average (A1:A4) A1, A2, A3, A4 62.5

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Max Function This will return the largest (max) value in the selected range of cells. A 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 25 5 Example of Max Cells to look at Ans. Max =max (A1:A4) A1, A2, A3, A4 30

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Min Function This will return the smallest (Min) value in the selected range of cells.

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Count Function This will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data) in the selected range of cells. Blank entries are not counted. Text entries are NOT counted. A 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 test 5 Example of Count Cells to look at Answer =Count (A1:A4) A1, A2, A3, A4 3

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CountA Function This will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data OR text data) in the selected range of cells. Blank entries are not Counted. Text entries ARE Counted.

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IF Function The IF function will check the logical condition of a statement and return one value if true and a different value if false. The syntax is =IF (condition, value-if-true, value-if-false) value returned may be either a number or text if value returned is text, it must be in quotes

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**IF Function A B 1 Price Over a dollar? 2 $.95 No 3 $1.37 Yes 4**

comparing # returning # 5 14000 0.08 6 8453 0.05 Example of IF typed into column B Answer =IF (A2>1,"Yes","No") No =IF (A3>1, "Yes", "No") Yes =IF (A5>10000, .08, .05) .08 =IF (A6>10000, .08, .05) .05

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PMT Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.

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**PMT Syntax PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type)**

Rate is the interest rate for the loan. Nper is the total number of payments for the loan. Pv is the present value, or the total amount that we are borrowing. Fv is the future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (zero), that is, the future value of a loan is 0. Type is the number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.

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PMT c7 =PMT(C4/12,C5,-C3)

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COUNTIF Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria. Syntax: COUNTIF(range,criteria) Examples: =COUNTIF(A2:A5,"apples") =COUNTIF(B2:B5,">55")

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**SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. Syntax: Examples:**

SUMIF(range,criteria,sum_range) Examples: =SUMIF(A2:A5,">160000",B2:B5)

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Array Formulas An array formula can perform multiple calculations and then return either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas act on two or more sets of values known as array arguments. Each array argument must have the same number of rows and columns. You create array formulas in the same way that you create other formulas, except you press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER to enter the formula.

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Array Formulas D5 => {=SUM(B2:D2*B3:D3)} SUM(B2*B3, C2*C3, D2*D3)

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Array Formulas D8 => {=SUM((B2:B5=“Male”)*(C2:C5=20)*(D2:D5=“Ankara”))}

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Spreadsheets Objective 6.02

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