2 Cultural, Social, and Religious life in America Chapter 7: Section 1In the early 1800’s the culture, religion, and social practices of Americans adapted to meet the challenges of a new and growing nation.By: Carly Norris, Christina Norwood, and ?
3 Cultural Advancements American Scholars and ArtistsEducationRepublican VirtuesBy: Carly Norris,Christina Norwood, and ??
4 American Scholars and Artists Their goal was to improve the lives of all Americans. The reason that the scholars emerged was because of increased prosperity.
5 Benjamin BannekerFrom: MarylandWorked as a writer, inventor, mathematician, and astronomer. Mapped out Washington DC. Published the first issue of the Almanac detailing the motions of the moon, sun, planets and stars.Mercy Otis WarrenFrom: Plymouth, MassachusettsShe wrote several patriotic plays encouraging the cause of independence.Wrote a book called The History of the American RevolutionCharles WilsonFrom: PennsylvaniaArtist who painted more than 1000 portraits in his life.Served as a soldier in the Revolution.Founded the first major museum in the new nation.Benjamin RushFrom: PennsylvaniaHe was a doctor, scientist, and a revolutionary who signed the Declaration of Independence, published numerous books on chemistry and medicine.Phillis WheatleyFrom: Sengal, West AfricaWrote poems called Poems on various subjects, religious and moral.Was a slave and was lucky that she was allowed to read and write.
6 EducationAmerican began to see/believe that children's education as means of developing a rich an uniquely American culture.American Spelling Book: Written by Noah Webster, and first appeared in The book was like a major dictionary, practically developing standards for the natural language. Webster also backed up this call by creating the American Dictionary of the English Language.1789, Massachusetts legislature made teachers present in class the “principles of piety, justice, and a sacred regard to truth, love to their country…chastity, moderation, and temperance.” and any other things that regarded the Republican Constitution.
7 Republican VirtuesThe virtues that the American people would need to govern themselves were called Republican Virtues.This included self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony, and sacrificing individual needs for the good of the community.They looked to women for these virtues because of their roles of wives, mothers, and teachers. Because of this, women began attending schools to learn how to be “republican women.”
8 Population Growth Chapter 7 Section 1 – Social Changes By: Kat St.George
9 Population GrowthAbout 2.7 million people lived in the original 13 states in 1780By 1830 the population grew to about 12 million people in 24 statesFrom the population doubled every 20 years
10 About 90% of the population growth came from the amount of children born in each family In the 1800s, the average woman had 5 kidsDuring the early 1800s about 130 of every 1,000 children died before their 1st birthdayToday the rate is only 7 deaths per 1,000 birthsChildren
11 Median AgeThe median age in 1820 was 17Today the median age is 35
12 Ch 7, Section 1 - Social Changes MobilityDon’t know who did this section….
13 New Rules for Courtship and Marriage SECTION 1:social changesNew Rules for Courtship and MarriageKatie Chapman
14 Women & MarriageOne of the few decision women had some control over was her choice of marriage partner.Marriage had become a matter of survival because there were few job opportunities for women.Women learned how to judge a potential mate by reading books.
15 Courtship in the 1800’sCourtship: A long period of getting acquainted with suitors before committing themselves to marry.In this time period, women were becoming more cautious about marriage. They waited a long time to get to know their future husband.In the time period of courtship, couples often wrote love letters to each other.Whether true love or not, courtship lead to the marriages that were building the new nation.
16 Country Wedding (1814). The painting pokes fun at young love and newly married couples.
17 Chapter 7 section 1 Religious Renewal The Second Great AwakeningBy: Kayla Burgess
18 Powerful religious movement in the early 1800’s Began in Kentucky and TennesseeEvangelical movement affection Protestant ChristiansStressed the importance of the Congregation (members), rather then ministersAlso the revival brought back people to a religious life and accepting belief in JesusThis created several new denominations
19 Three ideas:Christian Bible, known as the Script is the finial authoritySalvation can be achieved only through personal belief in JesusPeople demonstrate true faith called “witnessing for Christ”
20 Chapter 7 Section 1 Religious Renewal New DenominationsBy: Grace Long
21 During the Second Great Awakening several Protestant denominations (religious subgroups) experienced rapid growth.
22 The new denominations included the following: The United States soon had more different Christian denominations than any other nation.The new denominations included the following:BaptistsMethodistsUnitariansMormonsMillennialists
23 Ch. 7, Section 1- Religious Renewal: African American Worship African American preacher, Juliann Jane TillmanTyler BishopA4
24 African American Worship Like white Americans, many African Americans turned to evangelical religionThey found a strong sense of community in Methodism and other Protestant denominationsAs African Americans joined Christian churches, black and white traditions blended together.African Americans focused mainly on themes that held a double meaning.Believed that most important feature of a person was the content of their character.
25 African American Worship Cont. African Americans sometimes felt unwelcome in white-dominated churches.Tensions between whites and African Americans increased as African Americans became more assertive about sharing in democratic liberty.They then created their own church called the African Methodist Episcopal Church, consisting of 86 churches and 8,000 members.Elected Richard Allen, who was a leader in the creation of the AME, as bishop of the church.The democratic nature of the Second Great Awakening had attracted many African Americans to the churches of evangelical denominations. The evangelical churches were not able to establish real equality for African Americans.
26 Ch 7, Section 2 - Trails to the West In the early years of the republic, many people traveled west over the Appalachians to settle in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. Later, settlers would cross the continent to the Great Salt Lake and Pacific Coast.
27 Ch. 7, Section 2 – crossing the Appalachians By Eli William -The biggest reason for expansion westward across the Appalachians was because it was getting to over populated!! (people wanted elbow room!!!!)-The are they were trying to reach was called The Trans-Appalachia
28 The way they made it across the trans Appalachia was through main roads and water ways. The main roads consisted of Mohawk trail as well as the Great Valley and Richmond Road.Most of the population settled in the Ohio river valley
29 Ch7, Section2- Crossing the Appalachians Settling in the WildernessAlex Dandridge
30 Trans- AppalachiaPeople from many different backgrounds (religions and ethnic groups) settled in the areas west of the Appalachian Mountains. This area became known as Trans-Appalachia. In 1792 nearly settlers had settled in Trans-Appalachia. When people left to settle in the west, the whole family went together. Once people had reached their destination out west, they had no work. They were forced to plant crops, clear trees, and build log cabins for themselves. Below is a route that took settlers to the west through the Cumberland Gap, which became the main route to the western regions.
31 Daniel BooneDaniel Boone became a legend. He had hunted in Kentucky as early as 1767 and survived a clash with a band of Cherokee Indians in Boone was hired by the Transylvania Company, to cut a road in the wilderness through the Cumberland gap. This road enabled people to pass through the gap.
32 Northwest Ordinance9800 slaves had moved west with their owners. The Northwest-Ordinance of 1787 stated that there would be no slavery in the areas north of the Ohio River. This included places like Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan.
34 The DetailsAmericans wanted land real bad. So they crossed the Apps. And tried to make Indian’s leave there territory for free land.Cities and towns became overpopulated, needed more farm land.The U.S. gov’t pressured tribes to move west.The gov’t saw this land as perfect reservation land in the Louisiana Terr.But the land was thought to be un-farmable.
35 More Details Federal Agents would bribe some tribe leaders. Most of the tribes moved in the res.Many died from foreign diseases, starvation, and many epidemics.The Indian population decreased by a lot!!
36 Chapter 7, Section 2 Expanding into Florida Spanish OccupationIn 1795 the United States and Spain agreed to the Pinckney Treaty. Named after Thomas Pinckney, Who arranged it. It stated that1) The southern boundary of the United States was set at 31 degrees N latitude, leaving Florida firmly in Spanish hands.
37 Ch 7 Section 2- ContinuedUnited states citizens would be allowed free use to the Mississippi river through Spanish territory.They both agreed to control the Native Americans within their borders to prevent them from attacking.Socha – What happen with the Seminole and Andrew Jackson?
39 In March 1818 General Jackson led 2000 men to burn & capture Spanish towns of Seminole Indians. Eventually they captured western Florida. Spain was not happy when America wouldn’t apologize and give the land back. Spain eventually agreed to give the remainder of Florida if America gave them parts of Texas, creating a new border between U.S. and Spanish territories. This resolution was called the Adams- Onis Treaty.
40 Ch 7, Section 2 - Bound for the Pacific The Oregon Country
41 The Oregon Country Emily Deaton Bound for the PacificThe Oregon CountryEmily Deaton
42 Fur TradeLand beyond the Rocky Mountains was called the Oregon CountryYankee merchants traded for furs with Indians.Fur traders, called Mountain Men, adopted Indian ways.
43 Claiming the Oregon Country By the early 1800s, four different nations (United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Spain) had all claimed rights to the Oregon Country.Great Britain signed the Convention of 1818, agreeing to joint occupation.
44 Arrival of Missionaries Missionaries were sent to the Oregon Country, although most missionaries increased hostility instead of converting the Indians.
45 Chapter 7, Section 2 Bound for the Pacific By:Bizz Alidost
46 Overland TravelersMain route across the vast central plain and the Rocky MountainsJourney to the Oregon country took four to six monthsVery expensive $500-$1000 to make the tripReason for the journey was to obtain landMany of the pioneers also enjoyed the challenge and independence of life on the frontierDisease was a deadly threat to the pioneers more than the Native AmericansCholera killed as many as 10,000 pioneers between 1840 and 1860By 1845 more than 5,000 Americans had migrated to the Oregon CountryWagon trains traveled along the Oregon Trail
49 Mormon Migrations By: Noel Baker Mormons- a religious group founded by Joseph Smith in New York state.Mormons were harassed by neighbors who condemned their beliefs causing them to migrate in 1839 to Nauvoo, Illinois.Relations with neighbors in Illinois broke down in part because smith revealed that the Mormons allowed men to have more than one wife at the same time1844- a hostile mob killed Smith and his brother and the Mormons moved once again.1847- Hundreds of Mormons left their temporary camps in Iowa for new homes in the valley of the Great Salt Lake. The Route they followed came to be called the Mormon trail.Mormons prospered as farmers and traders by skillfully irrigating their desert region and by selling food and supplies to pioneers heading to California and Oregon.
51 Ch 7, Section 2 – Bound For The Pacific GOLD RUSHThe California gold rush began in 1848 when gold was discovered by a carpenter building a saw millWho Did this section?
52 The News Hits The East Coast The news of gold in California filled the papers in the eastern United States. Americans moved by the masses to California in the hope that they would strike it rich
53 The 49ersA year later the population of California had exploded from 14,000 to over 100,000 people, these people were called “49ers”,
54 Ch 7, Section 3 –The Great Plains and Southwest The Migration of Spaniards from central Mexico and settlers the United States in the Great Plains, California, and the Rio Grande Valley led to economic and political changes.
55 Ch 7, Section 3 – Plains Indians The Impact of the HorseUnknown?
56 New Nations and New Settlers By Will Woodward Many of the nomads on the great plains were newcomers, making them very vulnerable to native American attacks.The Crow tribe was the long dominate tribe of the plains but the native Americans that were kicked out of the east (Cheyenne, Sioux, Comanche and the Blackfeet) all moved to the plains
58 The Decline of Villages Villages started to decline because of the introduction of the horse. This allowed people to become vastly nomadic.With this new nomadic behavior there were major land disputes and the Indian wars started.The southern Native Americans were the Comanche, Apache and Navajo. The Comanche was the dominate tribe.The Sioux, Arapaho, and Cheyenne were the tribes in the north. Instead of fighting they were all in an alliance together.
60 Ch 7, Section 3 – Hispanic North America Spanish Colonies
61 Chapter 7, Section 3: Hispanic North America Spanish Colonies
62 Late 1600s/Early 1700sDuring this period of time Spain was losing power of the New Mexico area because of constant fighting with Native American tribesThe settlements in the New Mexico became few and far between, forcing the Spanish to move into the Texas region along the Rio Grande RiverDuring this period of time Spain was also threatened by opposition from other European nations trying to gain control of the same territory
63 Mid 1700sSpain wanted more North American territory, sought control of the area which is now California because they feared Britain or Russia would take over the areaThe Spanish created a number of missions and presidos (forts) along the coast; 21 in allThe missionaries tried to convert many of the natives to ChristianityThese California settlements grew while the settlements in New Mexico and Texas did not see much growth
64 Late 1700sThe settlements in California owed much of their success to Indian labor; the Indians were treated and many rebelled or abandoned the settlements (Indian populations decreased by about 50%)In the late 1700s the settlements in New Mexico began to growIndian attacks on the frontier did not allow for the settlement vast farmlands like in that of the other colonies, so people began to move closer together and form big cities (Albuquerque)
65 Chapter 7 Section 3 Hispanic North America Effects of Mexican IndependenceBy: Alexis Latona
66 Mexico won it’s independence from Spain in 1821 Greater Democracy Men were now free to elect representatives to the new government in Mexico CityGranted land rights to hundreds of wealthy, influential citizenswidened the gap between the between rich and poor in Mexico’s northern territoriesCaravans of wagons traveled regularly along the Santa Fe trail
67 American fur traders and merchants took advantage of economic openings Mexican government loosened the rules affecting trade with American merchantsStronger commercial ties encouraged some Americans to settle in northern Mexico
69 People Agustin De Iturbide Miguel Hidalgo A respected army officer that joined forces with rebels, resulting in a quick victoryPriest that triggered a rebellion that spread throughout southern Mexico
70 Ch 7, Section 3 – Texas Fights for Independence The start of the Colony by 7488 American settlersmigrated to Texasin 1822.The colony was ledby Stephen Austin.The colony mostly consisted of Ohio farmers.
71 Continued Texas had good soil for growing cotton. In 1825 there was 1,800 immigrants in the colony.By 1830 there was 7,000 immigrants in the colony.
72 Ch 7-3 Texas Fights for Independence By: Conner 1822Problems ariseMany immigrants lived in Stephen Austin’s colony in TexasA lot of these immigrants were farmers who found fertile land to grow cotton.
73 Texas Independence continued By 1830, the amount of Americans in Texas was almost double the Mexican populationMexico passed a law prohibiting further American Settlement as well as importation of slaves.Americans continued to cross the border, bringing their slaves with them.Five years later the American population was at 35,000
74 War BeginsAmericans pushed for independence, fighting for the same rights they were granted in the United States.General Antonio López de Santa Anna became dictator.American and Mexican Settlers strived for self-government.This eventually led to theTexas War for Independence in October of 1835.
76 Battle of the Alamo By Bailey Randolph The Alamo was a ruined Spanish mission in San Antonio converted into a fortress.Battle was between the vastly larger Mexican troops (Santa Anna was the leader) and the Texans.Texan leaders included William Travis, James Bowie, and the legendary frontiersman Davy Crockett.
77 Battle of the AlamoSanta Anna’s forces seemed more likely to win but the Texans surprised the over confident troops on April 21.Texan’s captured Santa Anna on May 14 and forced him to sign the Treaty of Valasco, recognizing the Republic of Texas
78 Texas War Of Independence – Outcomes By Ben Hohman The Alamo: When a group of 200 Texans fought a larger Mexican force in a battle that lasted 13 days.Treaty of Velasco: Treaty which recognized The Republic of Texas.
79 Outcomes: ContinuedCitizens of Texas later elected Sam Houstan as their president and drafted a constitution that modeled the U.S Constitution.