Presentation on theme: "Storytelling and Story-making Presented by Lancashire Leading Literacy Teachers Download powerpoint, film clips and other resources from the LLT."— Presentation transcript:
1Storytelling and Story-making Presented by Lancashire Leading Literacy Teachers Download powerpoint, film clips and other resources from the LLT moodle in advance – do not assume you can just access these from the internet at the venue.You will need speakers for the film clipsIdeally, furniture is better arranged in small groups around tables rather than in rowsPlease send register round to participants (return to Daniel Hayes in Literacyoffice)Welcome participants and introduce yourself1
2Talk for Writing DCSF Publications Tel: 0845 60 222 60 Booklet: BKT-ENDVD: DVD-ENExplain the content of the session – show the Talk for Writing booklet and DVDExplain that this session is the third of the Talk for Writing trioTerm 1: Book TalkTerm 2: Writer TalkTerm3: Story telling and story-makingAsk for a show of hands regarding who attended the writer talk and/or book talk twilight last term – direct delegates to the Talk for Writing pack if they have missed these twilights for further information.
3AimsTo explore the use of storytelling as a tool for helping children build a bank of narrative patterns they can use when creating their own stories.“The same images, with very little variation, have served all the authors who have ever written”Samuel JohnsonExplain the aim of the session – The quote is from Samuel Johnson and relates to Pie Corbett’s idea of ‘magpie-ing’. Good writers often use familiar themes and story structures to create their own new stories.Story reading and telling helps children internalise a living library of stories, like blueprints that can be used for their imagination.
4Talk for writing includes… Book-talkWriter-talkStorytelling and story-makingWord and language gamesRole-play and dramaTalk for Writing has developed around a number of key strategiesBook-talk – extended opportunity to use talk to explore children’s personal responses to a text as readers – teachers need to initiate book talk by inviting children to ‘Tell me what you thought about…’ or by asking ‘Have you come across anything like this before?’ This can then be developed to build on children’s own thinking and experiences and encourage them to feed off each other’s thinking and talking, leading to rich exchanges and an opportunity for children to develop and extend their own responses. (Pie Corbett gives a fuller explanation of Book-talk on the TfW DVD.)Writer-talk is the articulation of the thinking and creative processes involved in writing – helps children to understand how writers influence their readers and teaches them how to think like a writer and how best to convey messages to the reader.Storytelling and story-making - This strategy involves learning and repeating oral stories as a means of building children’s confidence for writing known stories. Through repeating stories daily, they become embedded in long term working memory and ultimately knowing stories well frees up cognitive space for the other elements of writing. Subsequently these known stories can be developed and extended and eventually they will form the basis of completely new stories.Word and language games can be used in a multitude of ways, including to develop vocabulary, tune children in to creative thinking, orally develop a character or paint a mental picture to develop the setting.And of course the value of Role-play and drama is very well known to EY and KS1 colleagues who use drama activities, hot-seating, etc to develop understanding and stimulate discussion across the curriculum. But perhaps we need to encourage teachers to think more about how these strategies can support the development of writing.Each of these strategies needs to be revisited regularly to have a real impact – both in literacy sessions and across the curriculum – and they need to be used and built upon year on year so that children become ever more confident about their use in developing their independent writing skills.
5Storytelling and story-making… involves the learning and repeating of oral storiesbuilds children’s confidence in storytellingextends storytelling into writingresults in new stories being prepared and rehearsed prior to writingTalk through this slide and provide the following background information.Story-making is based upon how children learn language – through imitation, innovation and invention of language.It draws upon international research that universally highlights the importance of stories as the key mode in which the human mind thinks.Stories are essential to cognitive development. They are not just a frivolity to end the day – they are central.Research shows that are important because they develop:composition/writingcomprehensionabstract, critical and logical thoughtmemory and concentrationa sense of belonging, confidence and motivationthe ability to learn information that is communicated in story formlanguage (listening, speaking, writing and reading)More information…Neuroscientists and psychologists agree that the mind actually uses story architecture to help us to understand the world.Our brains operate as neural story maps, using story as a template to explain and cope with experience.Story is the key method of internal processing used by the mind.
6Why storytelling is important – words of wisdom! Tell the teachers that they are going to see a short video clip of Pie Corbett telling us why story-telling is important. This is available on the Talk for Writing DVD and on the PNS website. You will need to create a hyperlink to the DVD clip which is entitled ‘ Pie explaining why storytelling is important’. This DVD clip will take 2 minutes and 48 seconds.Local authorities and schools have found that story-making is a powerful strategy for both improving boys’ writing and helping children who struggle with literacy to gain success. It is also a powerful strategy for EAL children because it supports the development of an additional language.The Progression in Narrative papers (available from the PNS Website) identify progression in writing which can be used alongside storytelling.The idea is quite simple! The first stage is for children to learn to tell a bank of stories orally each year. If they learn 10 stories in YR and another 10 in Y1, they enter Y2 knowing 20 stories which they can draw upon to develop an imaginative world of images and day dream about to invent new stories.Thereafter they may work with 1 story every half-term, therefore acquiring a huge bank of stories across the primary years.
7You cannot create out of nothing! Story-making has to be a daily routine – it is as important as phonics.What is the point of segmentation becoming a skill without a story to write!You cannot create out of nothing!Go through these points made by Pie Corbett – they strengthen and support the notion and importance of story-telling.Whilst daily phonics is crucial, children need to have some ideas to draw upon and develop when creating their own stories.We have always said “If you can’t say it, you can’t write it!”Make this point as you go through this slide.
8So how do we do it? The stories are taught in a multi-sensory way. Actions are used to make the story, and key connectives memorable.Each story has a story map as a visual reminder.Puppets, role-play, hot-seating and acting out can make the story memorable and bring it alive.Go through the slide and focus particularly on ‘making it memorable’ e.g. if you are retelling ‘The Magic Porridge Pot’ bring in a porridge pot and cook porridge!If you are retelling ‘Red Riding Hood’ bring in a red cloak. If you are retelling ‘Handa’s Surprise’ bring in the fruits and have animal masks.The more a story is recreated and represented in different forms, the more likely it is to live as a memorable metaphor in children’s minds.A flimsy relationship with a story will leave only the vaguest of traces in their imaginations.
9Children internalise… basic plotsthe building blocks of narrative (common characters, settings, events narrative patterning)the flow of language/sentencesthe vocabulary – especially connectives e.g. so, next, butThe constant experience of stories helps children to internalise the points above.
10Transcripts Reception boy in September – 4 yrs old. Same pupil in Summer – 5yrs old.Let the teachers read through the transcript of a YR boy telling his stories - based on Goldilocks and the Three Bears. The transcripts demonstrate the impact of storytelling and story-making on children’s oral retelling. To track progress with the youngest children, it is worth spending time recording their oral stories. A simple strategy is to ask them ‘can you tell me a story you know’ and ‘can you make up a new story for me?’ The recordings could be turned into transcripts to make comparisons easier. By the end of the year ask the same pair of questions and compare results.
11Y2 Communal storytelling Tell the teachers that they are going to watch a short clip of Y2 children carrying out a communal retelling of ’The Lighthouse Keepers Lunch’.They need to pay attention because they are going to learn a story and retell it before the end of the session!Point out the story map, the actions for connectives etc and the internalisation of not just the story structure and the flow of language, but the new vocabulary such as ‘wretched birds’ (to describe the seagulls) which is internalised by the children.Note that the actions for connectives etc should be standardised throughout the school to provide consistency fro year to year.We would hope that the children may start to use wretched in their writing! The children can “magpie” this word!Create a hyperlink from the picture of the lighthouse to open the clip of the Y2 class telling their communal story. This DVD clip will take 2 minutes and 34 seconds.
12The story-making process imitateinnovateIMITATION – familiarisation. Retell the story until it can be told fluently. Use a multi-sensory approach to make it memorable – remember actions and story maps.INNOVATION – adapting a well known tale. This could include substitution, addition, alteration, changing a point of view and reusing the basic story.INVENTION – creating your own NEW storyinvent
13From dependence to independence 1. Whole class – dependence2. Groups – interdependence3. Partners - independenceWhen initially learning a story, the above 3 stages can be followed so that children confidently move from telling the story as a class into groups and then pairs, thus moving from complete dependence to interdependence and finally to independent retelling.
14Story Map ‘The Little Green Dinosaur’ Listen – join in - retellExplain that you are going to teach everyone the story of ‘The Little Green Dinosaur’ (they have this in their packs – but have not to read it yet).When children know the story really well, it may be appropriate to show them a written version – they will find that they can almost read an otherwise difficult story!You will need to demonstrate telling the story first, using the story-map and actions.It will be easier for you if you use your own actions - but do have a practise before you do it with the teachers!Then repeat, getting the teachers to gradually join in.Learn they story together, as a group (communal retelling) then, if time, in groups and/or pairs.(See the notes on p2 of ‘Storytelling’ Pie Corbett)
15Imitate, innovate, invent… Show the DVD clip of Pie Corbett explaining the process of imitation, innovation and invention. This is entitled ‘Imitation, innovation and invention’. It will last for 2minutes 20seconds.You have taught the teachers to imitate the ‘Little Green Dinosaur’. You are now going to explain the process of innovation and invention. Then they will all have a go at this for themselves! You may get some very creative stories.Create a hyperlink from the picture of Pie Corbett to access the DVD clip
16Innovation substitution additions alterations change of viewpoint Refer to p4 of the “Storytelling” handout.Tell the teachers the next step will be to adapt the story of “The Little Green Dinosaur” through innovation, to make it their own.There are various changes that can be made:Substitution – This is the simplest form of innovation and many children find it simple enough to change basic names of characters, places and objects e.g. “The little, green monkey…”Additions – This is a second simple enough stage. The child keeps the same basic pattern and sentences, and adds extra sentences, embellishing the original.These might include:simple additions – e.g. “Long, long ago” = “A long, long time ago…”adding more descriptionadding more dialogueadding new characters or eventsadding extra detail to bring scenes alive.NOTE: You might like to take ideas from the audience for some of these points.Alterations – An alteration is a significant change that has consequences.altering characters so that a good character becomes grumpy - “The grumpy, green dinosaur hatched out of his egg.”altering settings e.g. “…the little green dinosaur hatched out of his egg and found himself alone in the zoo.”altering events but sticking to the basic plot e.g. “…first he met a fat, flappy penguin.”altering the plot structure e.g. how the story opens or ends “Are you my mummy?” squeaked the grumpy, green dinosaur. “No I am a giraffe, but I think I know where she is. I’ll take you there”.Change of Viewpoint:retelling in a different form (text-type) as a letter or a diary entry.retelling from a different character’s view e.g. The mummy dinosaur has lost her egg. Where is it?NOTE: Again take examples from the teachers if time allows.
17“The Little Green Dinosaur” Innovation“The Little Green Dinosaur”Make the story your own…You can substitute and add to it.Refer to the story map initially.Let the teachers have a go at innovating the story in small groups.NOTE: Remind the teachers that a new story map would be required to illustrate the updated story. Share ideas where time allows.
18Invention This should be: oral guided by the teacher; reusing familiar characters;reusing story language;an opportunity for new ideas,drawing on a range of stories.Invention involves orally creating a brand new story.The children need to get used to making stories up for themselves, drawing on their bank of told stories as well as their lives.To do this, hold regular story inventing sessions which should be guided by the points above.Teachers may wish to extend the process with their classes by capturing the story through the use of a video, audio recording or through writing (reading into writing).Draw the teachers attention to pp 8 – 10 for further information on innovation.
19The story innovation process from telling into writing Tell the story with actions and create a story map.Retell the story daily and internalise.Move onto story groups or pairs.Begin a class innovation – make a new story map.Class and teacher retell the new version in groups and pairs.The quality of children’s innovations is in direct relation to the quality of class innovation and shared writing.Retell the story as you write.
20The story innovation process from telling into writing 6. Teacher conducts shared writing of class innovation using modelling and scribing.7. Children write their own innovations – some may be simply substituting and others will be embellishing or altering.8. Children polish and publish stories.For younger children and weaker writers, when they settle down to write, they already know what they are going to say. This releases cognitive space.The children are not trying to cope with the demands of transcription at the same time as composition because they already know their story well.The act of writing has been made easier because they now know what they are going to say.This is why some children make dramatic progress. Teachers need to use shared writing to encourage progress.Writing in front of the children might be a blend of demonstration (“I’ll show you…”) and teacher scribing (“You have a think and I’ll write it down”).In teacher scribing, the teacher challenges weak suggestions.NOTE: Older children – probably from Y2 onwards – develop the story at the point of composition. It is important to set different story challenges within a class so some maybe simply substituting while others are embellishing or altering to Level 5.
21Writing strands Strand 9 Creating and shaping texts. Strand 10 Text structure and organisation.Strand 11 Sentence structure and punctuation.Storytelling and story-making really help younger children to;Develop vocabulary and use new words in retelling or writing. - Strand 9Get a hold of how stories are structured – through constant retelling - Strand 10Structure their sentences orally, which impacts on their writing. Strand 11
22Remember!“The more you retell aloud or in your head, the better you get to know the story, the more it can be improved”.“As you write the story, retell it again in your head, tweaking it where necessary”Pie Corbett 2008The teachers could share these comments from Pie Corbett with their classes as reminders or prompts of the storytelling process!
23Resources DCSF Publications Tel: 0845 60 222 60 Talk for Writing Booklet: BKT-ENDVD: DVD-ENThe DCSF publications are available to schools free of charge. The Talk for Writing materials (DVD and booklet) were delivered to all Lancashire schools in the schools bag in February of last year. Extra copies are available.
24Pie Corbett – Scholastic publications Storyteller 4-7ISBNStoryteller 7-9ISBNStoryteller 9-11ISBNThe Gingerbread Man and other stories for 4-7 year oldsISBN
25Clown publicationsThe Bumper Book of Storytelling into Writing – Key Stage 1Pie CorbettISBN