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Chapter 14 Instruction Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors

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1 Chapter 14 Instruction Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors
William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8th Edition with annotations by C. R. Putnam Chapter 14 Instruction Level Parallelism and Superscalar Processors

2 Superscalar Processors
Instruction-Level Parallelism Multiple Independent Instruction Pipelines; each with multiple stages, i.e., Common instructions (arithmetic, load/store, conditional branch) can be initiated and executed independently determine dependencies between nearby instructions input of one instruction depends upon the output of a preceding instruction locate nearby independent instructions issue & complete instructions in an order different than specified in the code stream uses branch prediction methods rather than delayed branches RISC or CICS; usually more RISC than CISC

3 Why Superscalar? Most operations are on scalar quantities (see RISC notes) Improve these operations to get an overall improvement

4 General Superscalar Organization
Superscalar systems support parallel execution of several instructions in separate pipelines of multiple functional units The configuration above, supports the parallel execution of two integer operations, two floating point operations and one memory operation.

5 Pipeline stages can be segmented into
Superpipelined Pipeline stages can be segmented into n distinct non-overlapping parts each of which can execute in 1/n of a clock cycle Exploits the fact that many pipeline stages perform tasks that require less than half a clock cycle, i.e., n=2. Doubled internal clock speed allows the performance of two tasks in one external clock cycle Superscalar allows parallel fetch & execute operations

6 Superscalar v Superpipeline
Simple pipeline system performs only one pipeline stage per clock cycle Superpipelined system is capable of performing two pipeline stages per clock cycle Superscalar performs only one pipeline stage per clock cycle in each parallel pipeline

7 Instruction level parallelism Compiler based optimisation
Limitations Instruction level parallelism Compiler based optimisation Hardware techniques Limited by True data dependency Procedural dependency Resource conflicts Output dependency Antidependency

8 True Data Dependency True Data Dependency
(Flow Dependency, Write-After-Read [WAR] Dependency) Second Instruction requires data produced by First Instruction ADD r1, r2 (r1 := r1+r2;) MOVE r3,r1 (r3 := r1;) Can fetch and decode second instruction in parallel with first Can NOT execute second instruction until first is finished

9 Procedural Dependency
Branch Instruction – Instructions following either Branches-Taken, or Branches-NotTaken have a procedural-dependency on the branch, i.e., can not execute instructions after a branch in parallel with instructions before a branch

10 Procedural Dependency (continued)
Variable-Length Instructions If the instruction length is not fixed, instructions have to be decoded to find out how many fetches are required prior to the fetching of the subsequent instruction, i.e., computing PC value This prevents simultaneous fetches of portions of the same instruction

11 Solution -- can provide for duplicate resources,
Resource Conflict Two or more instructions requiring access to the same resource at the same time, e.g. two arithmetic instructions requiring access to Memory, cache, buses, register ports, file ports, functional units access Solution -- can provide for duplicate resources, e.g. can provide two separate arithmetic units

12 Effect of Dependencies
Data Dependency assumes i1 uses data computed by i0 Procedural Dependency The instructions which follow a branch have a procedural dependency on the branch & cannot be executed until the branch is executed Resource Conflict is a competition between two or more instructions for the same resource at the same time; i0 & i1 require the same functional unit

13 Instruction level parallelism
Design Issues Instruction level parallelism Extent to which instructions in a sequence are independent Extent to which execution can be overlapped Governed by data and procedural dependency Machine Parallelism Ability to take advantage of instruction level parallelism Governed by number of parallel pipelines

14 Instruction Issue Policy
Process of initiating instruction execution in the processors functional units Occurs when the instruction moves from the decode stage to the first execute stage of the pipeline Orderings which may have to be changed when issuing instructions (providing the results are correct) Order in which instructions are fetched Order in which instructions are executed Order in which instructions change registers and memory

15 In-Order Issue In-Order Completion
Issue instructions in the order they occur Not very efficient May fetch more than one instruction at a time Instructions must stall if necessary

16 In-Order Issue In-Order Completion (Diagram)

17 In-Order Issue Out-of-Order Completion
Output dependency R3:= R3 + R5; (I1) R4:= R3 + 1; (I2) R3:= R5 + 1; (I3) I2 depends on result of I1 - data dependency If I3 completes before I1, the result from I1 will be wrong - output (read-write) dependency (system must stall I3)

18 In-Order Issue Out-of-Order Completion (Diagram)

19 Out-of-Order Issue Out-of-Order Completion
Decouple the decode stages from the execution stages of the pipeline; use a buffer called an instruction window Decoded instruction is placed in the instruction window Processor can continue to fetch & decode instructions until the buffer is full When a functional unit becomes available in the execute stage an instruction from the instruction window issued for execution, if no conflicts nor dependencies block this instruction

20 Out-of-Order Issue Out-of-Order Completion
Processor has Look-Ahead Capability (Instructions have been decoded) Identification of independent instructions is possible Instructions can be issued from the instruction window with little regard as to their original order The only constraint is that the program execute as intended

21 Out-of-Order Issue Out-of-Order Completion (Diagram)
Instruction window is not an additional stage; it simply means that sufficient information exists to allow the issuing of the instruction out of order

22 Write-write dependency
Antidependency Write-write dependency R3:=R3 + R5; (I1) R4:=R3 + 1; (I2) R3:=R5 + 1; (I3) R7:=R3 + R4; (I4) I3 can not complete before I2 starts as I2 needs a value in R3 and I3 changes R3 The second instruction destroys a value that the first instruction requires

23 Reorder Buffer Temporary storage for results completed out of order Commit the results to the register file in program order

24 Register Renaming Output and antidependencies occur because register contents may not reflect the correct ordering from the program Values are in conflict for the use of the registers The processor must resolve those conflicts by occasionally stalling a pipeline stage

25 Register Renaming When an instruction executes that has a register as a destination operand, a new register is allocated for that value Subsequent instructions that access that value as a source operand in that register must undergo a renaming process; the register references in those instructions must be revised to refer to the register containing the need value The same original register reference in several different instructions may refer to different actual registers, if different values are intended

26 Register Renaming example
R3b:=R3a + R5a (I1) R4b:=R3b (I2) R3c:=R5a (I3) R7b:=R3c + R4b (I4) Register reference without subscript refers to logical register in an instruction Register reference with the subscript refers to a hardware register allocated to hold the new value Note R3a, R3b, R3c When a new allocation is made for a particular logical register, e.g., R3b, subsequence instruction references to that logical register as a source operand are made to refer to the most recently allocated hardware register

27 Alternative: Scoreboarding
Bookkeeping technique Allow instruction execution whenever not dependent on previous instructions and no structural hazards

28 Machine Parallelism Duplication of Resources Out of order issue Renaming Not worth duplication functions without register renaming Need instruction window large enough (more than 8)

29 Speedups of Machine Organizations Without Procedural Dependencies

30 Branch Prediction 80486 fetches both next sequential instruction after branch and branch target instruction Gives two cycle delay if branch taken

31 Calculate result of branch before unusable instructions pre-fetched
RISC - Delayed Branch Calculate result of branch before unusable instructions pre-fetched Always execute single instruction immediately following branch Keeps pipeline full while fetching new instruction stream Not as good for superscalar Multiple instructions need to execute in delay slot Instruction dependence problems Revert to branch prediction

32 Superscalar Execution

33 Superscalar Implementation
Simultaneously fetch multiple instructions Logic to determine true dependencies involving register values Mechanisms to communicate these values Mechanisms to initiate multiple instructions in parallel Resources for parallel execution of multiple instructions Mechanisms for committing process state in correct order

34 Pentium – some superscalar components
CISC Pentium – some superscalar components Two separate integer execution units Pentium Pro – Full blown superscalar Subsequent models refine & enhance superscalar design

35 Pentium 4 Block Diagram

36 Pentium 4 Operation Fetch instructions form memory in order of static program Translate instruction into one or more fixed length RISC instructions (micro-operations) Execute micro-ops on superscalar pipeline micro-ops may be executed out of order Commit results of micro-ops to register set in original program flow order Outer CISC shell with inner RISC core Inner RISC core pipeline at least 20 stages Some micro-ops require multiple execution stages Longer pipeline c.f. five stage pipeline on x86 up to Pentium

37 Pentium 4 Pipeline

38 Pentium 4 Pipeline Operation (1)

39 Pentium 4 Pipeline Operation (2)

40 Pentium 4 Pipeline Operation (3)

41 Pentium 4 Pipeline Operation (4)

42 Pentium 4 Pipeline Operation (5)

43 Pentium 4 Pipeline Operation (6)

44 ARM CORTEX-A8 ARM refers to Cortex-A8 as application processors
Embedded processor running complex operating system Wireless, consumer and imaging applications Mobile phones, set-top boxes, gaming consoles automotive navigation/entertainment systems Three functional units Dual, in-order-issue, 13-stage pipeline Keep power required to a minimum Out-of-order issue needs extra logic consuming extra power Figure shows the details of the main Cortex-A8 pipeline Separate SIMD (single-instruction-multiple-data) unit 10-stage pipeline

45 ARM Cortex-A8 Block Diagram

46 Instruction Fetch Unit
Predicts instruction stream Fetches instructions from the L1 instruction cache Up to four instructions per cycle Into buffer for decode pipeline Fetch unit includes L1 instruction cache Speculative instruction fetches Branch or exceptional instruction cause pipeline flush Stages: F0 address generation unit generates virtual address Normally next sequentially Can also be branch target address F1 Used to fetch instructions from L1 instruction cache In parallel fetch address used to access branch prediction arrays F3 Instruction data are placed in instruction queue If branch prediction, new target address sent to address generation unit Two-level global history branch predictor Branch Target Buffer (BTB) and Global History Buffer (GHB) Return stack to predict subroutine return addresses Can fetch and queue up to 12 instructions Issues instructions two at a time

47 Instruction Decode Unit
Decodes and sequences all instructions Dual pipeline structure, pipe0 and pipe1 Two instructions can progress at a time Pipe0 contains older instruction in program order If instruction in pipe0 cannot issue, pipe1 will not issue Instructions progress in order Results written back to register file at end of execution pipeline Prevents WAR hazards Keeps tracking of WAW hazards and recovery from flush conditions straightforward Main concern of decode pipeline is prevention of RAW hazards

48 Instruction Processing Stages
D0 Thumb instructions decompressed and preliminary decode is performed D1 Instruction decode is completed D2 Write instruction to and read instructions from pending/replay queue D3 Contains the instruction scheduling logic Scoreboard predicts register availability using static scheduling Hazard checking D4 Final decode for control signals for integer execute load/store units

49 Integer Execution Unit
Two symmetric (ALU) pipelines, an address generator for load and store instructions, and multiply pipeline Pipeline stages: E0 Access register file Up to six registers for two instructions E1 Barrel shifter if needed. E2 ALU function E3 If needed, completes saturation arithmetic E4 Change in control flow prioritized and processed E5 Results written back to register file Multiply unit instructions routed to pipe0 Performed in stages E1 through E3 Multiply accumulate operation in E4

50 Load/store pipeline Parallel to integer pipeline E1 Memory address generated from base and index register E2 address applied to cache arrays E3 load, data returned and formatted E3 store, data are formatted and ready to be written to cache E4 Updates L2 cache, if required E5 Results are written to register file

51 ARM Cortex-A8 Integer Pipeline

52 SIMD and Floating-Point Pipeline
SIMD and floating-point instructions pass through integer pipeline Processed in separate 10-stage pipeline NEON unit Handles packed SIMD instructions Provides two types of floating-point support If implemented, vector floating-point (VFP) coprocessor performs IEEE 754 floating-point operations If not, separate multiply and add pipelines implement floating-point operations

53 ARM Cortex-A8 NEON & Floating Point Pipeline

54 Manufacturers web sites IMPACT web site
Required Reading Stallings chapter 14 Manufacturers web sites IMPACT web site research on predicated execution

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