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Topics Left Superscalar machines IA64 / EPIC architecture Multithreading (explicit and implicit) Multicore Machines Clusters Parallel Processors Hardware.

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Presentation on theme: "Topics Left Superscalar machines IA64 / EPIC architecture Multithreading (explicit and implicit) Multicore Machines Clusters Parallel Processors Hardware."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topics Left Superscalar machines IA64 / EPIC architecture Multithreading (explicit and implicit) Multicore Machines Clusters Parallel Processors Hardware implementation vs microprogramming

2 Chapter 14 Superscalar Processors Definition of Superscalar Design Issues: - Instruction Issue Policy - Register renaming - Machine parallelism - Branch Prediction - Execution Pentium 4 example

3 What is Superscalar? “Common” instructions (arithmetic, load/store, conditional branch) can be executed independently. Equally applicable to RISC & CISC, but more straightforward in RISC machines. The order of execution is usually assisted by the compiler. A Superscalar machine executes multiple independent instructions in parallel. They are pipelined as well.

4 Example of Superscalar Organization 2 Integer ALU pipelines, 2 FP ALU pipelines, 1 memory pipeline (?)

5 Superscalar v Superpipelined

6 Limitations of Superscalar Dependent upon: - Instruction level parallelism possible - Compiler based optimization - Hardware support Limited by — Data dependency — Procedural dependency — Resource conflicts

7 (Recall) True Data Dependency (Must W before R) ADD r1, r2 r1+r2  r1 MOVE r3, r1 r1  r3 Can fetch and decode second instruction in parallel with first LOAD r1, X x (memory)  r1 MOVE r3, r1 r1  r3 Can NOT execute second instruction until first is finished Second instruction is dependent on first (R after W)

8 (recall) Antidependancy (Must R before W) ADD R4, R3, 1 R3 + 1  R4 ADD R3, R5, 1 R5 + 1  R3 Cannot complete the second instruction before the first has read R3

9 (Recall) Procedural Dependency Can’t execute instructions after a branch in parallel with instructions before a branch, because? Note: Also, if instruction length is not fixed, instructions have to be decoded to find out how many fetches are needed

10 (recall) Resource Conflict Two or more instructions requiring access to the same resource at the same time —e.g. two arithmetic instructions need the ALU Solution - Can possibly duplicate resources —e.g. have two arithmetic units

11 Effect of Dependencies on Superscalar Operation Notes: 1) Superscalar operation is double impacted by a stall. 2) CISC machines typically have different length instructions and need to be at least partially decoded before the next can be fetched – not good for superscalar operation

12 Instruction-level Parallelism – degree of Consider: LOAD R1, R2 ADD R3, 1 ADD R4, R2 These can be handled in parallel. Consider: ADD R3, 1 ADD R4, R3 STO (R4), R0 These cannot be handled in parallel. The “degree” of instruction-level parallelism is determined by the number of instructions that can be executed in parallel without stalling for dependencies

13 Instruction Issue Policies Order in which instructions are fetched Order in which instructions are executed Order in which instructions update registers and memory values (order of completion) Standard Categories: In-order issue with in-order completion In-order issue with out-of-order completion Out-of order issue with out-of-order completion

14 In-Order Issue -- In-Order Completion Issue instructions in the order they occur: Not very efficient Instructions must stall if necessary (and stalling in superpipelining is expensive)

15 In-Order Issue -- In-Order Completion (Example) Assume: I1 requires 2 cycles to execute I3 & I4 conflict for the same functional unit I5 depends upon value produced by I4 I5 & I6 conflict for a functional unit

16 In-Order Issue -- Out-of-Order Completion (Example) How does this effect interrupts? Again: I1 requires 2 cycles to execute I3 & I4 conflict for the same functional unit I5 depends upon value produced by I4 I5 & I6 conflict for a functional unit

17 Out-of-Order Issue -- Out-of-Order Completion Decouple decode pipeline from execution pipeline Can continue to fetch and decode until the “window” is full When a functional unit becomes available an instruction can be executed (usually in as much in- order as possible) Since instructions have been decoded, processor can look ahead

18 Out-of-Order Issue -- Out-of-Order Completion (Example) Note: I5 depends upon I4, but I6 does not Again: I1 requires 2 cycles to execute I3 & I4 conflict for the same functional unit I5 depends upon value produced by I4 I5 & I6 conflict for a functional unit

19 Register Renaming to avoid hazards Output and antidependencies occur because register contents may not reflect the correct ordering from the program Can require a pipeline stall One solution: Allocate Registers dynamically (renaming registers)

20 Register Renaming example Add R3, R3, R5R3b:=R3a + R5a (I1) Add R4, R3, 1 R4b:=R3b + 1 (I2) Add R3, R5, 1 R3c:=R5a + 1 (I3) Add R7, R3, R4 R7b:=R3c + R4b (I4) Without “subscript” refers to logical register in instruction With subscript is hardware register allocated: R3a R3b R3c Note: R3c avoids: antidependency on I2 output dependency I1

21 Recaping: Machine Parallelism Support Duplication of Resources Out of order issue hardware Windowing to decouple execution from decode Register Renaming capability

22 Speedups of Machine Organizations ( Without Procedural Dependencies) Not worth duplication of functional units without register renaming Need instruction window large enough (more than 8, probably not more than 32)

23 Branch Prediction in Superscalar Machines Delayed branch not used much. Why? Multiple instructions need to execute in the delay slot. This leads to much complexity in recovery. Branch prediction should be used - Branch history is very useful

24 View of Superscalar Execution

25 Committing or Retiring Instructions Results need to be put into order (commit or retire) Results sometimes must be held in temporary storage until it is certain they can be placed in “permanent” storage. (either committed or retired/flushed) Temporary storage requires regular clean up – overhead – done in hardware.

26 Superscalar Hardware Support Facilities to simultaneously fetch multiple instructions Logic to determine true dependencies involving register values and Mechanisms to communicate these values Mechanisms to initiate multiple instructions in parallel Resources for parallel execution of multiple instructions Mechanisms for committing process state in correct order

27 Example: Pentium 4 A Superscalar CISC Machine

28 Pentium 4 alternate view

29 Pentium 4 pipeline 20 stages !

30 a) Generation of Micro-ops (stages 1 &2) Using the Branch Target Buffer and Instruction Translation Lookaside Buffer, the x86 instructions are fetched 64 bytes at a time from the L2 cache The instruction boundaries are determined and instructions decoded into bit RISC micro-ops Micro-ops are stored in the trace cache

31 b) Trace cache next instruction pointer (stage 3) The Trace Cache Branch Target Buffer contains dynamic gathered history information (4 bit tag) If target is not in BTB - Branch not PC relative: predict branch taken if it is a return, predict not taken otherwise - For PC relative backward conditional branches, predict take, otherwise not taken

32 c) Trace Cache fetch (stage 4) Orders micro-ops in program-ordered sequences called traces These are fetched in order, subject to branch prediction Some micro-ops require many micro-ops (CISC instructions). These are coded into the ROM and fetched from the ROM

33 d) Drive (stage 5) Delivers instructions from the Trace Cache to the Rename/Allocator module for reordering

34 e) Allocate: register naming (stages 6, 7, & 8) Allocates resources for execution (3 micro-ops arrive per clock cycle): - Each micro-op is allocated to a slot in the 126 position circular Reorder Buffer (ROB) which tracks progress of the micro-ops. Buffer entries include: - State – scheduled, dispatched, completed, ready for retire - Address that generated the micro-op - Operation - Alias registers are assigned for one of 16 arch reg (128 alias registers) {to remove data dependencies} The micro-ops are dispatched out of order as resources are available Allocates an entry to one of the 2 scheduler queues - memory access or not The micro-ops are retired in order from the ROB

35 f) Micro-op queuing (stage 9) Micro-ops are loaded into one of 2 queues: - one for memory operations - one for non memory operations Each queue operates on a FIFO policy

36 g) Micro-op scheduling (stages 10, 11, & 12) The 2 schedulers retrieve micro-ops based upon having all the operands ready and dispatch them to an available unit (up to 6 per clock cycle) If two micro-ops need the same unit, they are dispatched in sequence. h) Dispatch (stages 13 & 14)

37 i) Register file (stages 15 & 16) j) Execute: flags (stages 17 & 18) The register files are the sources for pending fixed and FF operations A separate stage is used to compute the flags

38 k) Branch check (stage 19) l) Branch check results (stage 20) Checks flags and compares results with predictions If the branch prediction was wrong: - all incorrect micro-ops must be flushed (don’t want to be wrong!) - the correct branch destination is provided to the Branch Predictor - the pipeline is restarted from the new target address


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