Presentation on theme: "SMARTER UK – RESOURCES FOR SCHOOLS"— Presentation transcript:
1SMARTER UK – RESOURCES FOR SCHOOLS Please feel free to use this PowerPoint presentation in the classroom. It is intended to support the KS3 & KS4 curriculum and the Scottish S3-S4 curriculum.KEY LEARNING:The different effects of drugs, from stimulants through to depressants, and how they act upon the central nervous system.Specific curriculum areas include:KS3 Science3.3 Organisms, behaviour and healthc) conception, growth, behaviour and health can be affected by diet, drugs and diseaseLinks to KS4 GCSE Biology SyllabusesOCR3.3 Fundamental Scientific ProcessesItem B1e: Drugs and YouFoundation tier only: low demandRecognise that drugs can be beneficial or harmful.Explain the terms: addiction, withdrawal symptoms, tolerance and rehabilitation.Describe the general effects of each drug category:depressants: slow down brain’s activitypain killers: block nerve impulsesstimulants: increase brain’s activityperformance enhancers: muscle developmenthallucinogens: distort what is seen and heardBoth tiers: standard demandRecall examples of drugs:depressants, limited to alcohol, solvents and temazepampain killers, limited to aspirin and paracetamolstimulants, limited to nicotine, ecstasy and caffeineperformance enhancers, limited to anabolic steroidshallucinogens, limited to LSDHigher Tier only: high demandExplain the action of depressants and stimulants on the synapses of the nervous system:depressants bind with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone blocking the transmission of the impulsesstimulants cause more neurotransmitter to cross the synapseOCR 21st Century ScienceMODULE B6: BRAIN AND MIND – OVERVIEWB6.6 How do drugs affect our nervous systems? Effects of Ecstasy on synapse action.AQA11.3 How do we use/abuse medical and recreational drugs?Drugs can be beneficial but may harm the body.Drugs change the chemical processes in people’s bodies so that they may become dependent or addicted to them and suffer withdrawal symptoms without them. Heroin and cocaine are very addictive.EdexcelTopic 3: Problems of, and solutions to a changing environment3.2) Describe the general effects of:painkillers that block nerve impulses, including morphinehallucinogens that distort sense perception, including LSDstimulants that increase the speed of reactions and neurotransmission at the synapse, including caffeinedepressants that slow down the activity of the brain, including alcoholScottish S3-S4 scienceHealth and Wellbeing - Substance misuseHWB 3-38a/HWB 4-38a . I understand the positive effects that some substances can have on the mind and body but I am also aware of the negative and serious physical, mental, emotional, social and legal consequences of the misuse of substances
2Drugs and the human body How do drugs affect the brain?
3in the brain most drugs work by altering activity at the synapse nerve endingsdendritesneurotransmittervesiclesynaptic cleftreceptormyelin sheathcell bodythe signalis transmitted to another neurone across a junction called a synapse by chemicals called neurotransmitters.nucleusaxonSmarter UK
4different drugs do different things to the brain Some drugs affect the whole brain(e.g. alcohol)Others mainly affect specific areas (e.g. cocaine)Some drugs mimic the effects of neurotransmitters (e.g. heroin)Many drugs change the rate that neurotransmitters are released into and removed from the synaptic cleft (e.g. ecstasy)Credit: Wellcome Library, LondonSmarter UK
5pain killers hallucinogens different drugs give a different experience to the drug-userSome drugs, such as morphine, block nerve impulses that cause pain. These are known as…pain killersSome drugs, such as alcohol and solvents, slow down the brain’s activity by making the synapse less active. These are known as… depressantsSome drugs, such as LSD distort what the user sees and hears, by effecting the receptors for a particular type of neurotransmitter: serotonin. These are known as…hallucinogensAnd some, such as nicotine, ecstasy and caffeine, make the synapse more active. These are known as… stimulantsCredit: Wellcome Library, London
6drugs cause addiction because they over-activate the parts of the brain responsible for feeling pleasureaddictive drugs cause an increase in levels of a neurotransmitter called dopaminethis makes you feel goodfeeling good makes you want to keep on feeling goodyour brain tries to get things back to normal by becoming less sensitive to dopamine. (You become tolerant to the drug)you need more and more of the drug to make you feel goodyou need some of the drug just to feel normalwithout the drug, there isn’t enough dopamine in your brain and you feel terrible. This is called withdrawalmessing with the delicate balance of your brain can have very serious consequences!Smarter UK