Presentation on theme: "SMARTER UK – RESOURCES FOR SCHOOLS"— Presentation transcript:
1 SMARTER UK – RESOURCES FOR SCHOOLS Please feel free to use this PowerPoint presentation in the classroom. It is intended to support the KS3 & KS4 curriculum and the Scottish S3-S4 curriculum.KEY LEARNING:The structure of the brain and how the central nervous system works, including information about what happens at a synapse and information about how our brains adapt and change.Specific curriculum areas include:KS4 GCSE Biology SyllabusesOCR3.3 Fundamental Scientific Processes. Module B1d – The nervous systemFoundation tier only: low demandName and locate the main parts of the nervous system, to include:the central nervous system (CNS) (brain and spinal cord)the peripheral nervous systemBoth tiers: standard demandName and locate the parts of a motor neurone: cell body, axon and sheath.Recall that the nerve impulse passes along the axon of a neurone.Higher tier only: high demandRecall that the gap between neurones is called a synapse.Describe how an impulse triggers the release of a transmitter substance in a synapse and how it diffuses across to bind with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone causing the impulse to continue.OCR 21st Century ScienceMODULE B6: BRAIN AND MIND – OVERVIEWB6.2 How is information passed through the nervous system? Structure of motor neurons; transmission of electrical impulses, including synapses.AQA11.1 How do human bodies respond to changes inside them and their environment?The nervous system enables humans to react to their surroundingsand coordinate their behaviour.Information from receptors passes along cells (neurones) in nerves to the brain. The brain coordinates the response.The role of receptors, sensory neurones, motor neurones, relay neurones, synapses and effectors in simple reflex actions.EdexcelTopic 2: Responses to a changing environment2.19) Recall that the central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord and is linked to sense organs by nerves2.20) Explain the structure and function of dendrons and axons in the nervous system2.21) Describe how stimulation of receptors in the sense organs sends electrical impulses along neurones2.23) Describe the structure and function of sensory, relay and motor neurones and synapsesScottish S3-S4 scienceBiological Systems - Body systems and CellsSCN 2-12a I have explored the structure and function of organs and organ systems and can relate this to the basic biological processes to sustain life.Scottish Certificate in Education, Standard Grade Biology. Topic 5: The body in action. Subtopic c: Coordination18) Examine the gross structure of the nervous system of a mammal.19) Obtain and present information on the flow of information in the nervous system.State that the nerves carry information from the senses to the central nervous system and from the central nervous system to the muscles.20) Obtain and present information on the three main parts of the brain. Identify the cerebrum, cerebellum and the medulla and state their functions in simple terms.
3 peripheral nervous system (PNS) your nervous systemis divided into the central nervous system (CNS)which is the brain and spinal cordMedical Art Service, Munich /, Wellcome Imagesand theperipheral nervous system (PNS)Credit Medical Art Service, Munich /, Wellcome Imageswhich connects everything to the brain and spinal cordSmarter UKNN
4 your brain Different parts of your brain have different functions… interprets the information it gets though your senses in order to monitor and regulate your bodyas well as being responsible forthinking, learning, memory and emotionDifferent parts of your brain have different functions… Credit: Heidi Cartwright, Wellcome Images Smarter UKB
5 Cerebral cortex Corpus callosum Brain stem Cerebellum different regions have different functionsCerebral cortexFunctions include: planning; reasoning; language; recognising sounds and images; memory.Corpus callosumconnects the brain’s right and left hemispheresCerebellumimportant for coordination, precision and timing of movementBrain stemregulates heart rate, breathing, sleep cyclesand emotionsCredit: Mark Lythgoe & Chloe Hutton, Wellcome ImagesSmarter UK
6 axon structure of a neurone nerve endings dendrites myelin sheath the cells of the nervous system are called neuronesnerve endingsdendritesmyelin sheathcell bodynucleusaxonstructure of a neuroneSmarter UK
7 there are different types of neurone sense organdirection of electrical signaldendritescell bodymyelin sheathaxonmusclenerve endingsmotor neuronesensory neuronerelay neuronesends signals from your sense organsconnects neurones to other neuronessends signals to your muscles to tell them to moveSmarter UK
8 But what happens when the signal reaches the end of the axon? neurones communicate with each other using a mixture of electrical & chemical signalsnerve endingsdendritesBut what happens when the signal reaches the end of the axon?myelin sheathcell bodyan electrical signal is transmitted along the axonnucleusaxonSmarter UK
9 signals cross between neurones at the synapse nerve endingsdendritesneurotransmittervesiclesynaptic cleftreceptormyelin sheathcell bodythe signalis transmitted to another neurone across a junction called a synapse by chemicals called neurotransmitters.nucleusaxonSmarter UK
10 signals cross between neurones at the synapse electrical impulse triggers vesicles to move to the synapse membrane1synapsevesicles fuse with the membrane and release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft2nerve endingsdendritesneurotransmitter diffuses across the cleft and binds to receptors on the other side3neurotransmittervesiclesynaptic cleftreceptormyelin sheathcell bodythe signalis transmitted to another neurone across a junction called a synapse by chemicals called neurotransmitters.nucleusOnce enough receptors have neurotransmitters bound to them, the signal is transmitted…4axonSmarter UK
11 The point where your muscles and nervous system meet is called the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) Signals sent from your central nervous system to the NMJ tell muscles to moveThe synapses at the NMJ use a neurotransmitter called acetylcholineSmarter UK
12 Your brain changes and adapts What happens as our brains mature?
13 your brain changes and adapts all the time and all through your life your brain learns and forms memories by strengthening synapses that are used a lot and weakening those that are used less oftenCredit Marina Caruso, Wellcome ImagesSmarter UK
14 Between birth and age 3 your brain makes lots of new synapses What happens as you grow?Between birth and age 3 your brain makes lots of new synapsesA toddler has 2-3 times more synapses than an adultAs your brain matures, it prunes synapses to make it more efficientDuring adolescence your brain has a major tidy-up and gets rid of lots of connections it isn’t usingThis is a critical and delicate process. It is thought that conditions such as schizophrenia could be the result of it going wrongSome evidence suggests that using drugs can disrupt this process