Particle Physics Study Nature at distances < 10 -15 m atom nucleus Quantum theory describes measurements down to 10 -18 m (Compare: 10 +18 m = 100 lightyears) 10 -15 m
Powers of ten… Universe 10 26 m Galaxy 10 21 m Solar system 10 13 m Earth 10 7 m Spider 10 -2 m Atom 10 -10 m Nucleus 10 -15 m Collisions 10 -18 m
Particle Physics Questions that were asked for over 2000 years… What are the elementary building blocks of matter? What are the forces that act on matter ? Demokritos atom Newton forces Maxwell electromagnetism Einstein All… 400 v.Chr. 1687 1864 1905
Why fundamental research? Fundamental research –Can lead to surprises, Sometimes even useful… “Without general relativity, the GPS would be wrong by 10km/day !”
Why fundamental research? Fundamental research –Leads to useful spin-off Medical Internet Educating scientists for society (Philips, ASML, etc, etc) PET scanwww
up down electron Elementary particles Proton up down Neutron down up
What can you make out of 3 building blocks? periodiek systeem van Mendeleev Everything!
Elementary particles quarks Not 1 generation, but 3! leptons (1956) u d I e e (1895) t b III (1973) (2000) (1978) (1995) c s II (1936) (1963) (1947) (1976)
Fundamentele deeltjes en deeltjesversnellers Is this everything? Charge + 2/3 e - 1/3 e - 1 e 0 e quarks Generation: leptons Matter (1956) u d I e e (1895) t b III (1973) (2000) (1978) (1995) c s II (1936) (1963) (1947) (1976)
Anti-matter Revolutions early 1900: –Theory of relativity –Quantum Mechanics Paul Dirac (1928): relativistic quantum theory! For every matter particle there is an anti-matter particle! Anti-matter particle: Same mass Opposite electric charge
Elementary particles Charge + 2/3 e - 1/3 e - 1 e 0 e quarks leptons Matter (1956) u d I e e (1895) t b III (1973) (2000) (1978) (1995) c s II (1936) (1963) (1947) (1976)
Elementary particles - 2/3 e + 1/3 e + 1 e 0 e u d c s t b e e Anti-matter Lading III I II Lading + 2/3 e - 1/3 e - 1 e 0 e quarks leptons Materie (1956) u d I e e (1895) t b III (1973) (2000) (1978) (1995) c s II (1936) (1963) (1947) (1976)
How do you make anti-matter?? e+e+ e-e- Albert Einstein: E=mc 2 Matter + anti-matter= light ! (and vice versa) e+e+ e-e-
Anti-matter in hospitals: the PET-scan e+e e+e e+e e+e
I. What are the big questions? “Anti-matter” Where did the anti-matter disappear? No anti-matter found with satellites No anti-matter galaxies
II. What are the big questions? “Higgs” Mass of particles Neutrino’s Electron Muon Tau up,down, strange Top quark bottom charm The Higgs boson: provides the ‘formula’ to give particles mass! Amazing prediction:
We only studied 4% of the universe! Temperature fluctuations structure formation of galaxies Rotation-curves Gravitational lens What is dark materie ? III. What are the big questions ? “Dark matter”
What are the big questions? Anti-matter?? (where did it go??) Dark matter?? (what clustered the galaxies??) Higgs?? (what makes particles heavy?)
Waar is de Anti-materie heen?AstronomyParticlePhysicsFundamental (curiosity driven) research
The biggest microscope on earth the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Genève
proton How many Higgs bosons were produced at the LHC up to now 0 If the Higgs does not exist
proton How many Higgs bosons were produced at the LHC up to now If the Higgs does exist m h = 120 GeV: 120.000 m h = 200 GeV: 60.000
Higgs ZZ 4 muons very few… 120.000 Higgs bosons Only 1 in 1000 Higgs bosons decays to 4 muons 50% chance that ATLAS detector detects them 60 Higgs 4 lepton events higgs Z Z h ZZ l + l - l + l - l+l+ l-l- l-l- l-l- peak !?
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