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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen This lecture is being recorded and will be viewable on the Web from Friday 2 nd February at –

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen 10 7 m Large structures and Orders of Magnitude

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Sun (Eclipse) corona 10 9 m Sun ≈ 2x10 30 kg ≈ (protons + neutrons) nucleons

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen m Earth Orbit

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Milky Way

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Spiral Galaxy light years = m stars

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Galaxy Cluster (Hercules) m Thousands of Galaxies

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Hubble Deep Field

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen A Foamy Universe (bubbles 200 Mly across)

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen m m m m m m galaxies stars Summary of the largest structures nucleons

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Dominated by Matter and Gravity ** (10 11 galaxies, stars) Described by General Relativity (or Newtonian Mechanics) ** This is far from the whole truth !!

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Where it all came from 15 billions = 1.5 x years ago and since then ever expanding

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Will the Expansion ever stop ? Inflation predicts a flat universe. This means that the Density of Matter and Energy equals the so called critical density Ordinary Matter can account for only up to 5% of the critical density Dark Matter Problems

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen The First Dark Matter problem: these Galaxies should simply not exist ! Need a spherical halo of matter around the galaxy So: is there invisible (dark) matter around the galaxy ?

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen speed 200km/s distance from center predicted measured

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Gravitational lensing Distant galaxy Foreground cluster Observer 10 9 light years 2x 10 9 light years

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Reconstruction of Mass Distribution (250 times more matter than expected from light output)

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Large amounts of invisible (dark) matter Can NOT be ordinary matter : - does not interact with light - does not interact with ordinary matter - does concentrate around galaxies and in galaxy clusters. What is it ??? If the answer is Super Symmetric Particles, LHC will find it !!

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen The Second Dark Matter problem: The dark matter seems to make up only 30-50% of the critical density This may be linked with observations of a possible accelerating expansion of the universe at large distances. Study of type 1a Supernovae (1a Supernovae ≈ standard light sources)

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen 1a Supernova: white dwarf accompanying star

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Far away* supernovae seem to be too far away ! Very difficult observations, but if true could mean: Resurrection of Einstein’s Cosmological Constant, or “Qintessence” - one more possibility of Exotic Matter ???? Need more astronomical data Need the LHC for a better understanding of dark matter * for specialists - red shifts z ≈ 1

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen The Smallest Structures where Quantum Mechanics reigns, and where particles are waves, and waves are particles Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Relation: ( x)( p) ≈ h/(2 ) or ( t)( E) ≈ h/(2 ) h is Planck’s constant - a very small number, (6.6x Js) x is position, p is momentum, t is time, and E is energy. ( x) means uncertainty in position, etc

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Electrons ( m ) Atom nucleus nucleon quark m m m m Constituents of matter see

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Stable (ordinary) matter: one up quark (charge +2/3) one down quark (charge -1/3) one electron (charge -1) one neutrino (no charge, “no” mass) proton neutron But for what do we need the neutrino?? leptons composite particles nucleons

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen The Forces of Nature (what is a force?) Newton and Gravity Faraday and Fields Forces as “Exchange” Particles An important difference between Matter Particles and Force Particles: M.P. obey Pauli’s Principle, i.e. only one particle for each quantum state. F.P. does not have this constraint and can clump together. This is why Matter appears to be Solid

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Is the Quantum World a Fuzzy World? The answer is a clear NO ! QM means that all the qualities of the subatomic world and by extension of everything can be exactly quantified ! Photon, E = h

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Can not use light microscopes to study atoms !!! Quantum mechanics tells us that particles behave like waves and visa versa: h/p Use electron microscopes LEP the world’s biggest electron microscope electron

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen electron quark New Stuff from E = Mc 2 New, unstable particles, can NOT be explained as made up of up and down quarks only. High Energy electron-proton scattering

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Creating New Matter with LEP Need two more generations of quarks

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen How does a point in empty space know exactly the variety of particles it can produce and all their properties and their forces.... ??? Back to Heisenberg and Faraday: Particles and Forces are Quantum Fields filling every point of “Empty” Space (or the “Vacuum”). The Fields materialize as Particles when Energy is fed into this Vacuum. Structures are temporary, the Pattern lasts for ever !

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen electron (energy U) U= 1 eV = 1.6x J (speed at positive plate km/s) 1 keV = 10 3 eV 1 MeV = 10 6 eV 1 GeV = 10 9 eV 1 TeV = eV LEP = 209 GeV LHC = 14 TeV Practical Units Volt

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CERN, 31 January, 2001 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen Einstein: E = Mc 2 pc use units such that c =1 E (GeV or MeV) p (GeV/c or MeV/c) M (GeV/c 2 or MeV/c 2 ) M0c2M0c2 M proton = GeV/c 2 ≈ 1 GeV/c 2 M electron = 0.5 MeV/c 2 ( M top = 170 GeV/c 2 ) proton diameter = length scale: m = 1 fermi (femtometer) E Special Relativity: ( E 2 = (pc) 2 + (M 0 c 2 ) 2 )

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