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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

This lecture is being recorded and will be viewable on the Web from Friday 2nd February at – Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**1. Structures at all Scales 2. What did we get from LEP ?**

Physics at the LHC 1. Structures at all Scales 2. What did we get from LEP ? 3. The Exciting Physics at the LHC Egil Lillestol, 31 January, 8 and 21 February Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Large structures and Orders of Magnitude 10 7 m Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Sun (Eclipse) corona 10 9 m Sun ≈ 2x1030 kg ≈ 1057 (protons + neutrons) nucleons Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Earth Orbit 10 11 m Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Milky Way Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Spiral Galaxy light years = m 10 11 stars Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Galaxy Cluster (Hercules) 10 23 m Thousands of Galaxies Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Hubble Deep Field Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

A Foamy Universe (bubbles 200 Mly across) Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Summary of the largest structures 10 21 m m m 10 11 galaxies 10 22 stars 1080 nucleons 10 24 m m m Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Our Universe Dominated by Matter and Gravity ****

(1011 galaxies, 1022 stars) Described by General Relativity (or Newtonian Mechanics) ** This is far from the whole truth !! Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Big Bang 15 billions = 1.5 x 10 12 years ago and since then ever expanding Where it all came from Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Will the Expansion ever stop ? Inflation predicts a flat universe. This means that the Density of Matter and Energy equals the so called critical density Ordinary Matter can account for only up to 5% of the critical density Dark Matter Problems Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**The First Dark Matter problem:**

these Galaxies should simply not exist ! So: is there invisible (dark) matter around the galaxy ? Need a spherical halo of matter around the galaxy Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

speed measured 200km/s predicted distance from center Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Gravitational lensing Distant galaxy 109 light years Foreground cluster 2x 109 light years Observer Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Reconstruction of Mass Distribution **

(250 times more matter than expected from light output) Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Large amounts of invisible (dark) matter Can NOT be ordinary matter : - does not interact with light - does not interact with ordinary matter - does concentrate around galaxies and in galaxy clusters. What is it ??? If the answer is Super Symmetric Particles, LHC will find it !! Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

The Second Dark Matter problem: The dark matter seems to make up only 30-50% of the critical density This may be linked with observations of a possible accelerating expansion of the universe at large distances. Study of type 1a Supernovae (1a Supernovae ≈ standard light sources) Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

1a Supernova: white dwarf accompanying star Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Far away* supernovae seem to be too far away ! Very difficult observations, but if true could mean: Resurrection of Einstein’s Cosmological Constant, or “Qintessence” - one more possibility of Exotic Matter ???? Need more astronomical data Need the LHC for a better understanding of dark matter * for specialists - red shifts z ≈ 1 Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

The Smallest Structures where Quantum Mechanics reigns, and where particles are waves, and waves are particles Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Relation: (Dx)(Dp) ≈ h/(2p) or (Dt)(DE) ≈ h/(2p) h is Planck’s constant - a very small number, (6.6x10-34Js) x is position, p is momentum, t is time, and E is energy. (Dx) means uncertainty in position, etc Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Constituents of matter Electrons (10-18 m ) see Atom nucleus nucleon quark 10-10 m m m m Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Stable (ordinary) matter: one up quark (charge +2/3) one down quark (charge -1/3) one electron (charge -1) leptons one neutrino (no charge, “no” mass) proton composite particles nucleons neutron But for what do we need the neutrino?? Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

The Forces of Nature (what is a force?) Newton and Gravity Faraday and Fields Forces as “Exchange” Particles An important difference between Matter Particles and Force Particles: M.P. obey Pauli’s Principle, i.e. only one particle for each quantum state. F.P. does not have this constraint and can clump together. This is why Matter appears to be Solid Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Is the Quantum World a Fuzzy World? The answer is a clear NO ! QM means that all the qualities of the subatomic world and by extension of everything can be exactly quantified ! Photon, g E = hn Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Can not use light microscopes to study atoms !!!**

Quantum mechanics tells us that particles behave like waves and visa versa: electron l = h/p Use electron microscopes LEP the world’s biggest electron microscope Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

High Energy electron-proton scattering quark electron New Stuff from E = Mc2 New, unstable particles, can NOT be explained as made up of up and down quarks only. Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Creating New Matter with LEP Need two more generations of quarks Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

How does a point in empty space know exactly the variety of particles it can produce and all their properties and their forces .... ??? Back to Heisenberg and Faraday: Particles and Forces are Quantum Fields filling every point of “Empty” Space (or the “Vacuum”). The Fields materialize as Particles when Energy is fed into this Vacuum. Structures are temporary, the Pattern lasts for ever ! Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Practical Units U= 1 eV = 1.6x10-19J (speed at positive plate km/s) electron (energy U) 1 keV = eV 1 MeV = 106 eV 1 GeV = eV 1 TeV = eV LEP = 209 GeV LHC = 14 TeV - + 1 Volt Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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**Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen**

Einstein: E = Mc2 use units such that c =1 E (GeV or MeV) p (GeV/c or MeV/c) M (GeV/c2 or MeV/c2) Special Relativity: ( E2= (pc)2 + (M0c2)2 ) pc E Mproton = GeV/c2 ≈ 1 GeV/c2 Melectron = 0.5 MeV/c2 ( Mtop = 170 GeV/c2 ) M0c2 proton diameter = length scale: 10-15 m = 1 fermi (femtometer) Egil Lillestøl, CERN & Univ. of Bergen CERN, 31 January, 2001

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