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Hardeep Bansil Thomas McLaughlan University of Birmingham MINERVA Z Mass Exercise.

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Presentation on theme: "Hardeep Bansil Thomas McLaughlan University of Birmingham MINERVA Z Mass Exercise."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hardeep Bansil Thomas McLaughlan University of Birmingham MINERVA Z Mass Exercise

2 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 2 ATLAS - A Toroidal LHC Apparatus

3 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 3 The Standard Model The W and Z bosons are some of the most massive particles we know of From E=mc 2, we know that the energy stored in a W or Z boson is enough to create pairs of lighter particles

4 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 4 Why do we care? We have studied the W and Z bosons in great detail at previous experiments Helps us to understand new experiments They are also still very important in understanding new physics For example, the Higgs Boson may be massive enough to create a pair of W or Z bosons

5 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 5 Aims of the Exercise Identify the particles detected by ATLAS with the Atlantis Event Display Determine the types of events you are looking at: W → electron + neutrino W → muon + neutrino Z → electron + positron Z → muon + anti-muon Background from jet production Measure the Z boson mass from selected Z candidates with the help of E 2 = m 2 c 4 + p 2 c 2

6 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 6 Atlantis

7 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 7 The Graphical User Interface (GUI) From the GUI you can: Load and navigate through a collection of events Interact with the event picture View output data from the event

8 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 8 The Canvas The Canvas shows: The end-on view of the detector Energy shown in ‘rolled out’ calorimeters The side view of the detector

9 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 9 Identifying Particles The Inner Detector measures the charge and momentum of charged particles, neutral particles don’t leave tracks The Electromagnetic Calorimeter measures the energy of electrons, positrons and photons The Hadronic Calorimeter measures the energy of particles containing quarks, such as protons, pions and neutrons The Muon Spectrometer measures the charge and momentum of muons Electron Photon Proton or π + Neutrino (not seen) Neutron Muon

10 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 10 Explanation: Transverse Energy and Momentum Before colliding, the protons in ATLAS move only in the z- direction Therefore, we know that in x and y, the momentum is zero and this must be conserved after the collision We cannot measure the whole event energy because energy is lost in very forward region (beam-pipe) Better measurement: transverse or “side-ways” component (x-y) Typically “interesting” collisions contain particles with big transverse energies (E T ) and momenta (p T )

11 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 11 Explanation: Missing Energy Before colliding, the protons in ATLAS move only in the z- direction Therefore, we know that in x and y, the momentum is zero and this must be conserved after the collision If a neutrino is created, the detector doesn’t see it, so when we add up the momenta of all the particles we see, there is a deficit - this is Missing Energy

12 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 12 Example: Finding Electrons First look at end- on view: Energy deposit in EM calorimeter Track in Inner Detector ‘Missing Energy’ represented by dashed line

13 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 13 Example: Finding Electrons In the side view: Track in Inner Detector Energy deposit in EM calorimeter

14 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 14 Example: Finding Electrons This plot is known as the ‘Lego Plot’ Think of it as showing the calorimeters rolled out flat In the Lego Plot: Energy deposited in the EM calorimeter (green)

15 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 15 Example: Classifying an Event This event actually contains 2 electrons With very little missing energy Therefore this event must be a Z → ee

16 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 16 Example: Another Electron? Is this another electron? Track in Inner Detector But not much calorimeter activity

17 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 17 Check the Output Use the ‘Pick’ tool to measure the momentum of the particle Click ‘Pick’ Click on the track The track will turn grey and data will appear in the output box

18 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 18 Check the Output This track has too low momentum (P) to be of interest The lack of calorimeter activity also suggests that this is an uninteresting track This means nothing happened in the barrel region...

19 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 19 Checking the Endcaps This could still be an interesting event, however Check in the other views Here is a track with an energy deposit in the EM calorimeter endcap Also a large amount of Missing Energy This event is a W → ev

20 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 20 Identifying Electrons Now we know how to classify events containing electrons Make sure you make note of which events you have seen as you go along We are not only looking at electrons, however...

21 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 21 Example: Finding Muons Track in Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer Not much calorimeter activity Lots of missing energy This event is a W → μ ν

22 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 22 Example: More Muons Two inner detector tracks extending into the Muon Spectrometer Not much calorimeter activity This event is a Z → μμ

23 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 23 Z Mass with Muons Use the Pick tool to select the two muons Get the Px Py Pz for each lepton to calculate E using c = 1 as Particle Physicists do! Get Z mass from both leptons

24 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 24 Identifying Muons Now we know how to identify muons and do the Z mass calculations You now have everything you need to identify the interesting events, but be careful...

25 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 25 Background Some events may look interesting, but are just background events to what we are interesting in searching for This may be due to the production of streams of hadrons travelling close together (known as jets), for example So, we also need to know how to identify the background events...

26 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 26 Identifying Background Could this event contain an interesting electron or muon?

27 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 27 Identifying Background Lots of EM calorimeter activity and some Muon hits But also a lot of Hadronic calorimeter activity This event is a background event

28 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 28 Summary of Task Look through your 5 tutorial events (already loaded) and classify each event into one of the five categories: Z → ee, W → eν, W → μν, Z → μμ, Background Another 20 events preloaded if you want more practice Load the file with Z candidate events to measure the mass of a Z boson Aim to determine the mass from the two lepton candidates (use paper & pen or spreadsheet) Aim to calculate masses for at least 10 events Use plotter to fit data

29 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 29 Summary Hopefully, you got something like this …

30 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 30 Summary Z mass is ± GeV/c 2 ("2008 Review of Particle Physics – Gauge and Higgs Bosons")"2008 Review of Particle Physics – Gauge and Higgs Bosons" If not close or error very big, add more entries using “Add 10 Events” button Always get a range of values due to uncertainty in measurement

31 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 31 Credits MINERVA is developed by staff and students at RAL and the University of Birmingham Atlantis is developed by staff and students at Birmingham, UCL and Nijmegen

32 Hardeep Bansil, Tom McLaughlan University of Birmingham 32 Links Main Minerva website ATLAS Experiment public website Learning with The Particle Adventure (Good introduction to particle physics)


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