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Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman WELCOME TO OUR PRESENTATION.

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Presentation on theme: "Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman WELCOME TO OUR PRESENTATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman WELCOME TO OUR PRESENTATION

2 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Introduction This presentation is presented by: This presentation is presented by: Bilge Akdağ Bilge Akdağ M.Mert Kişman M.Mert Kişman Get ready for the journey of IP Routing. Get ready for the journey of IP Routing. This presentation is supposed to last around 70 minutes. (Hopefully ) This presentation is supposed to last around 70 minutes. (Hopefully )

3 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Topics of Discussion 1/2 IP Addresses IP Addresses IP Versions IP Versions IP Version 4 (Currently in use) IP Version 4 (Currently in use) IP Version 6 (Being developed for future needs) IP Version 6 (Being developed for future needs) Examples Examples Limits Limits Private IP Addresses Private IP Addresses Dynamic / Static IP Addresses Dynamic / Static IP Addresses

4 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Topics of Discussion 2/2 Routing Routing Routers Routers Working principles Working principles Hardware Routers Hardware Routers Software Routers Software Routers Pronunciation Pronunciation Routing Tables Routing Tables Topologies Topologies

5 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman IP (Internet Protocol) Address Unique number on a computer network Unique number on a computer network Required for identification on a wide area network Required for identification on a wide area network Also required for communication on WAN Also required for communication on WAN

6 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman IP Versions IP Version 4 IP Version 4 Currently being used Currently being used IP Version 6 IP Version 6 Is being developed for the future Is being developed for the future

7 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman IP Version 4 32 bit numbers 32 bit numbers Ex: Ex: _ _ _. _ _ _. _ _ _. _ _ _ 4 x 8 bits each _ _ _. _ _ _. _ _ _. _ _ _ 4 x 8 bits each Max= Max=255 2^7 2^6 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^2 2^1 2^0 2^7 2^6 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^2 2^1 2^0 Biggest IP number Biggest IP number possible unique addresses possible unique addresses 18 Million for private networks 18 Million for private networks

8 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman IP Version 6 IP Version 4 will not be enough in the near future. IP Version 4 will not be enough in the near future. IP Version 6 is being developed to replace IP Version 4. IP Version 6 is being developed to replace IP Version 4. Consists of 128bits numbers while IP4 is 32bits Consists of 128bits numbers while IP4 is 32bits Faster routing will be accomplished. Faster routing will be accomplished. Uses simpler header structure. Uses simpler header structure.

9 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Private IP Addresses Some IP Addresses are reserved to be used in private networks. Some IP Addresses are reserved to be used in private networks – Numbers – Numbers – Numbers – Numbers – Numbers – Numbers These ip ranges are for only Private networking These ip ranges are for only Private networking Not for the Internet Not for the Internet Last one is used mostly on routers. Last one is used mostly on routers.

10 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Dynamic / Static IP’s Two methods for assigning IP addresses Two methods for assigning IP addresses Dynamic Dynamic IP Address changes by time to time IP Address changes by time to time Non-permanent devices Non-permanent devices Ex: Home users Ex: Home users Allocation requires a DHCP server Allocation requires a DHCP server DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Assigns addresses randomly Assigns addresses randomly Assigns a “lease time” (How long that ip address is valid for that machine) Assigns a “lease time” (How long that ip address is valid for that machine)

11 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Dynamic / Static IP’s Static Static IP Address given to a machine never changes IP Address given to a machine never changes Semi-permanent devices Semi-permanent devices Ex: Servers Ex: Servers Mostly costs extra Mostly costs extra

12 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman ROUTING Choosing the path to send the data Choosing the path to send the data Passing of packets through “routers” Passing of packets through “routers” Routing is done by “routing tables” within the routers. Routing is done by “routing tables” within the routers. Routing tables keep best routes to a group of addresses. Routing tables keep best routes to a group of addresses. Routing occurs at “Network Layer”. Routing occurs at “Network Layer”.

13 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman ROUTERS A device to connect two or more networks to each other. A device to connect two or more networks to each other. Forwards data packets from one network to another. Forwards data packets from one network to another. Uses routing tables to accomplish the routing job. Uses routing tables to accomplish the routing job.

14 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman ROUTERS – How does it work?

15 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Hardware Routers - Wired 8 ports for connecting computers 8 ports for connecting computers EtherFast® (100Mbps) EtherFast® (100Mbps) Around 75 New Liras Around 75 New Liras

16 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Hardware Routers - Wired 4 ports for connecting computers 4 ports for connecting computers Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) Around 200 New Liras Around 200 New Liras

17 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Hardware Routers - Wireless 4 ports for connecting via cable 4 ports for connecting via cable Max. of 254 devices can be connected Max. of 254 devices can be connected 54Mbps Wireless-G (802.11g) 54Mbps Wireless-G (802.11g) Around 110 New Liras Around 110 New Liras

18 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Hardware Routers - Wireless State of art wireless router State of art wireless router (“Kick Ass” router ) 4 ports for connecting via cable 4 ports for connecting via cable 3 Wireless-G devices in one box. 3 Wireless-G devices in one box. 3 times more range 3 times more range 10 times faster than a regular Wireless-G device 10 times faster than a regular Wireless-G device Not yet available in Turkey Not yet available in Turkey

19 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Hardware Routers Routers sometimes combined with Routers sometimes combined with ADSL Modems ADSL Modems Most of the routers on market in Turkey Most of the routers on market in Turkey Cable Modems Cable Modems Also used to connect more than one computer to the internet with current ADSL/Cable modem combined versions Also used to connect more than one computer to the internet with current ADSL/Cable modem combined versions

20 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Software Routers Routing can be done without any hardware Routing can be done without any hardware Software routing programs are available Software routing programs are available Many Linux distributions contain IP Routing software. Many Linux distributions contain IP Routing software. Instead of hardware router Instead of hardware router You can install routing software on your computer You can install routing software on your computer Or on a spare computer Or on a spare computer

21 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Software Routers Can be done using Microsoft Windows XP Can be done using Microsoft Windows XP Known as Internet Connection Sharing Known as Internet Connection Sharing Already working without your knowledge!! Already working without your knowledge!! Check it out on task manager. “alg.exe” Check it out on task manager. “alg.exe” Stands for Application Layer Gateway Stands for Application Layer Gateway It is used to connect more than one computers to the internet through the main computer. It is used to connect more than one computers to the internet through the main computer.

22 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Pronunciation Many people pronounce it differently. Many people pronounce it differently. Everybody thinks their way is correct. Everybody thinks their way is correct. In reality: In reality: British speakers pronounce it as “RUTIR” British speakers pronounce it as “RUTIR” American speakers tend to call it “RAUTIR” American speakers tend to call it “RAUTIR” American way sounds simply “Cooler” American way sounds simply “Cooler”

23 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Routing Tables A record of best routes to various networks A record of best routes to various networks Placed within the routers Placed within the routers Construction of routing tables very important Construction of routing tables very important

24 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Routing Tables A general view of a routing table A general view of a routing table

25 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Routing Tables For Win2k/XP “route print” For Win2k/XP “route print”

26 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Routing Tables Routing tables are set dynamically or statically. Static routing tables used in small networks Static routing tables used in small networks Requires little configuration on the router Requires little configuration on the router Complex networks use both static and dynamic routing tables. Complex networks use both static and dynamic routing tables.

27 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Routing Tables Dynamic routing tables Dynamic routing tables Uses different “network topologies”. Uses different “network topologies”. Construction of dynamic routing tables is a very complex job. Construction of dynamic routing tables is a very complex job. Not everyone has the knowledge of it’s complex algorithms. Not everyone has the knowledge of it’s complex algorithms.

28 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Topologies Pattern of links connecting pairs of nodes. Pattern of links connecting pairs of nodes. Each node has 1 or more links to other nodes. Each node has 1 or more links to other nodes. Many different topologies can be connected together (Hybrids) according to needs. Many different topologies can be connected together (Hybrids) according to needs.

29 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Topologies Some of the main topologies

30 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman Conclusion Internet can not exist without routing Internet can not exist without routing Accessing outside of your LAN requires routers. Accessing outside of your LAN requires routers. Routing occurs at Network Layer of OSI layers. Routing occurs at Network Layer of OSI layers.

31 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman RESOURCES (In MLA Format) Özbilen, Alper. Bilgisayar Ağları ve Güvenliği. İstanbul: Pusula Yayıncılık ve İletişim San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti., 2005 Özbilen, Alper. Bilgisayar Ağları ve Güvenliği. İstanbul: Pusula Yayıncılık ve İletişim San. ve Tic. Ltd. Şti., 2005 Baycan, Tolga. CTP204 Class Notes. Bilkent University, Ankara Baycan, Tolga. CTP204 Class Notes. Bilkent University, Ankara “Routing”. Wikipedia. 20 th April Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. “Routing”. Wikipedia. 20 th April Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Linksys. 20 th April Cisco Systems. Linksys. 20 th April Cisco Systems.

32 Bilge Akdağ & M.Mert Kişman THANK YOU For Listening! Questions are welcomed…


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