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Overview of similarities and differences between terrestrial and marine planning Mandy Lombard, NMMU and UCT, South Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of similarities and differences between terrestrial and marine planning Mandy Lombard, NMMU and UCT, South Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of similarities and differences between terrestrial and marine planning
Mandy Lombard, NMMU and UCT, South Africa

2 Acknowledgements: Richard Cowling and Andrew Knight
(Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University) Mathieu Rouget (SA National Biodiversity Insitute) Belinda Reyers (CSIR) Jan Vlok (Botanist) Bob Pressey and Hedley Grantham (University of Queensland) Lynnath Beckley (Murdoch) Jean Harris (KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife) Kerry Sink (SANBI) George Branch and Barry Clark (University of Cape Town) Deon Nel (WWF)

3 Similarities The conservation planning process is the same
2. The basic steps are the same

4 Conservation Planning Process
Management Planning Assessment Conservation activity Stakeholder collaboration Involved Informed Empowered LEARNING INSTITUTIONS Retention Representation Conservation goal Persistence IMPLEMENTATION STAKEHOLDERS ENABLING CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES Conservation Planning Process MAINSTREAMING CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY Fig. legend. Conservation planning processes that deliver effective conservation action on the ground (arrow) achieve a minimum suite of milestones (stages). Although those milestones constituting systematic assessment (bottom left) underpin effective conservation planning processes, they are best undertaken at the regional scale, are completed relatively rapidly, and do little to empower stakeholders and so alone do not directly deliver effective conservation action. In the long term, persistence of nature and effective conservation management (top right) are more closely linked to processes that empower stakeholders: ultimately, the establishment of social learning institutions provide for adaptive management. The establishment of learning institutions provide for adaptive management. Assessment 1. Understand the ecosystem (by mapping patterns and processes and working out how they interact) 2. Understand the threats (by mapping their spatial and temporal distribution and their intensity, and working out exactly who is responsible for them, and how they affect marine ecosystems)  Planning 3. Devise a plan to protect marine ecosystems from these threats – take into account stakeholders and political will  Implementation 4. Implement this plan (MPAs, catch limits, international agreements, compliance) 5. Manage the plan and monitor ecosystem responses to the plan and provide feedback to number 1 (this forms the research-implementation continuum, see Knight et al paper, Knight, A.T., Cowling, R.M. and Campbell, B.M An operational model for implementing conservation action. Conservation Biology 20(2): 408–419) CONSERVATION VALUES DATA Time scale Rapid In perpetuity Knight et al. 2006a

5 Conservation Planning Steps
1: map biodiversity features (species and habitats) 2: map spatially fixed processes Southern Right Whale feeding grounds and nursery areas 3: define spatially flexible processes 4: set targets for all patterns & processes Length coastline %of area Process 5: identify and map the spatial extent of threats to all patterns and processes 6: identify gaps in current protection of patterns & processes (assessment: C-Plan, Marxan, etc.) 7: identify spatial/management interventions to ensure target achievement

6 There are real differences in ecology and scale:
dynamic nature of oceanographic processes high natural variability connected water matrix SST Chl extensive movement of organisms in a system with few discrete boundaries

7 Differences The diversity of marine habitats and species is comparatively greater (marine) BUT The knowledge of this diversity, and also of the underlying processes that maintain it, is disproportionately poor (data are harder to collect, way more expensive, so more use of surrogates)

8 Differences There has been concern that marine systems may be too open and variable to support area-based conservation approaches Marine - mostly about management of extraction (targets have been fisheries based - catch limits) Terrestrial - mainly about setting aside areas (targets are area based)

9 Differences Are real and perceived differences in: Ownership Human use Sustainability Regulation Access rights Marine – GREAT importance of: local knowledge extensive stakeholder support compliance monitoring

10 Differences Threats to marine environment
Extractive marine living resource use Pollution Mining Coastal development Climate change Catchment degradation Non-extractive recreational activities Alien invasive species Mariculture (few extinctions) In marine environments, few are transformed at habitat level, more at ecosystem level e.g. food chains Threats are more widespread and difficult to limit to one region Aliens can’t be controlled Threats to terrestrial environment  Habitat destruction (fragmentation)


12 Six current MPA Projects: BCLME
National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment KwaZulu-Natal Offshore MPAs Agulhas Bioregion Prince Edward Islands

13 Special challenges in the marine environment
Where are the bioregions? - 3-D environment - limited patterns maps - limited process maps - limited human use maps

A t l a n i c O f s h o r e B g I d - P S u w N m q W D C p OFFSHORE BIOREGIONS (X4) INSHORE BIOREGIONS (X5) All of the inshore bioregions were assumed to extend to the edge of the continental shelf (where the sub photic and upper slope meet).

15 2. Where is the biodivesity?
Known Unknown (surrogates)

16 3a. What scale should we be mapping at for effective implementation?

17 3b. What scale should we be mapping at for effective implementation?
Deep-sea sediments

18 4. How do we map and protect the moving component of biodiversity?

19 5. How do we map ecosystem processes (offshore)?
The three-dimensional nature of the marine environment and its temporal variability pose difficult challenges in understanding and managing the pelagic (water column) component of the oceans.


21 KwaZulu-Natal (SeaPlan)
Sea surface temperature Chlorophyll

22 Offshore “Profiles”– 1km x 1km
Defined by ……. * Depth * Geology & sediment type * Sediment stability/mobility * Turbidity * Temperature * Chlorophyll



25 Oceanographic Provinces
Bakun (Ocean triads)

26 (i) Map human activity in the marine environment
6. How do we incorporate costs and opportunities into MPA planning? (i) Map human activity in the marine environment         Who are they and what are they doing?         Where do they go in space and time?         How much do they go?         What are the costs/values/significance of the activities?        

27 (ii) Map vulnerability
Rouget et al. (2003). Biological Conservation Kerri Wilson

28 (iii) Incorporate this information into the conservation planning analyses (Marxan)
Romola Stewart

29 7. How does one trade long-term biodiversity goals with short-term fisheries goals?
2 n m 1 Prince Edward Islands To Australia

30 Patagonian toothfish Lombard et al. (2007). Antarctic Science

31 The Gap In Conservation Planning Implementation Research
- goal is to design protected areas and other management strategies which represent and ensure the persistence of nature - by separating it from the activities which degrade or destroy it However: - conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions which actually conserve nature The gap: There is a “research-implementation gap” between conservation science and ‘real-world’ action Conclusion: A re-evaluation of the research direction of both the conceptual and operational basis of conservation planning is urgently required Knight et al. 2006b

32 The End

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