Presentation on theme: "Overview of similarities and differences between terrestrial and marine planning Mandy Lombard, NMMU and UCT, South Africa."— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of similarities and differences between terrestrial and marine planning Mandy Lombard, NMMU and UCT, South Africa
2 Acknowledgements: Richard Cowling and Andrew Knight (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University)Mathieu Rouget(SA National Biodiversity Insitute)Belinda Reyers (CSIR)Jan Vlok (Botanist)Bob Pressey and Hedley Grantham(University of Queensland)Lynnath Beckley (Murdoch)Jean Harris (KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife)Kerry Sink (SANBI)George Branch and Barry Clark(University of Cape Town)Deon Nel (WWF)
3 Similarities The conservation planning process is the same 2. The basic steps arethe same
4 Conservation Planning Process ManagementPlanningAssessmentConservation activityStakeholder collaborationInvolvedInformedEmpoweredLEARNING INSTITUTIONSRetentionRepresentationConservation goalPersistenceIMPLEMENTATIONSTAKEHOLDERSENABLINGCONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIESConservation Planning ProcessMAINSTREAMINGCONSERVATION PRIORITIESIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGYFig. legend. Conservation planning processes that deliver effective conservation action on the ground (arrow) achieve a minimum suite of milestones (stages). Although those milestones constituting systematic assessment (bottom left) underpin effective conservation planning processes, they are best undertaken at the regional scale, are completed relatively rapidly, and do little to empower stakeholders and so alone do not directly deliver effective conservation action. In the long term, persistence of nature and effective conservation management (top right) are more closely linked to processes that empower stakeholders: ultimately, the establishment of social learning institutions provide for adaptive management.The establishment of learning institutions provide for adaptive management.Assessment1. Understand the ecosystem (by mapping patterns and processes and working out how they interact)2. Understand the threats (by mapping their spatial and temporal distribution and their intensity, and working out exactly who is responsible for them, and how they affect marine ecosystems) Planning3. Devise a plan to protect marine ecosystems from these threats – take into account stakeholders and political will Implementation4. Implement this plan (MPAs, catch limits, international agreements, compliance)5. Manage the plan and monitor ecosystem responses to the plan and provide feedback to number 1 (this forms the research-implementation continuum, see Knight et al paper, Knight, A.T., Cowling, R.M. and Campbell, B.M An operational model for implementing conservation action. Conservation Biology 20(2): 408–419)CONSERVATION VALUESDATATime scaleRapidIn perpetuityKnight et al. 2006a
5 Conservation Planning Steps 1: map biodiversity features (species and habitats)2: map spatially fixed processesSouthern Right Whale feeding grounds and nursery areas3: define spatially flexible processes4: set targets for all patterns & processesLengthcoastline%of areaProcess5: identify and map the spatial extentof threats to all patterns and processes6: identify gaps in current protection of patterns & processes(assessment: C-Plan, Marxan, etc.)7: identify spatial/management interventionsto ensure target achievement
6 There are real differences in ecology and scale: dynamic nature of oceanographic processeshigh natural variabilityconnected water matrixSSTChlextensive movement of organisms in a systemwith few discrete boundaries
7 DifferencesThe diversity of marine habitats and species is comparatively greater (marine)BUTThe knowledge of this diversity,and also of the underlyingprocesses that maintain it,is disproportionately poor(data are harder to collect,way more expensive,so more use of surrogates)
8 DifferencesThere has been concern that marine systems may be too open and variable to support area-based conservation approachesMarine - mostly aboutmanagement of extraction(targets have been fisheriesbased - catch limits)Terrestrial - mainly aboutsetting aside areas (targets arearea based)
9 DifferencesAre real and perceived differences in:OwnershipHuman useSustainabilityRegulationAccess rightsMarine – GREAT importance of:local knowledgeextensive stakeholder supportcompliance monitoring
10 Differences Threats to marine environment Extractive marine living resource usePollutionMiningCoastal developmentClimate changeCatchment degradationNon-extractive recreational activitiesAlien invasive speciesMariculture(few extinctions)In marine environments, few are transformed at habitat level, more at ecosystem level e.g. food chainsThreats are more widespread and difficult to limit to one regionAliens can’t be controlledThreats to terrestrial environment Habitat destruction (fragmentation)
12 Six current MPA Projects: BCLME National Spatial Biodiversity AssessmentKwaZulu-NatalOffshore MPAsAgulhas BioregionPrince Edward Islands
13 Special challenges in the marine environment Where are the bioregions?- 3-D environment- limited patterns maps- limited process maps- limited human use maps
14 INSHORE BIOREGIONS (X5) AtlanicOfshoreBgId-PSuwNmqWDCpOFFSHORE BIOREGIONS (X4)INSHORE BIOREGIONS (X5)All of the inshore bioregions were assumed to extend to the edge of the continental shelf (where the sub photic and upper slope meet).
15 2. Where is the biodivesity? KnownUnknown (surrogates)
16 3a. What scale should we be mapping at for effective implementation?
17 3b. What scale should we be mapping at for effective implementation? Deep-sea sediments
18 4. How do we map and protect the moving component of biodiversity?
19 5. How do we map ecosystem processes (offshore)? The three-dimensional nature of the marine environment and its temporal variability pose difficult challenges in understanding and managing the pelagic (water column) component of the oceans.
26 (i) Map human activity in the marine environment 6. How do we incorporate costs and opportunities into MPA planning?(i) Map human activity in the marine environment Who are they and what are they doing? Where do they go in space and time? How much do they go? What are the costs/values/significance of the activities?
27 (ii) Map vulnerability Rouget et al. (2003). Biological ConservationKerri Wilson
28 (iii) Incorporate this information into the conservation planning analyses (Marxan) Romola Stewart
29 7. How does one trade long-term biodiversity goals with short-term fisheries goals? 2nm1PrinceEdwardIslandsTo Australia
30 Patagonian toothfishLombard et al. (2007). Antarctic Science
31 The Gap In Conservation Planning Implementation Research - goal is to design protected areas and other management strategieswhich represent and ensure the persistence of nature- by separating it from the activities which degrade or destroy itHowever:- conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions whichactually conserve natureThe gap:There is a “research-implementation gap” between conservation science and ‘real-world’ actionConclusion:A re-evaluation of the research direction of both the conceptual and operational basis of conservation planning is urgently requiredKnight et al. 2006b