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Ecosystem Approaches To Conservation Photo from Wikimedia Commons.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem Approaches To Conservation Photo from Wikimedia Commons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem Approaches To Conservation Photo from Wikimedia Commons

2 Photo from Wikimedia Commons; definition from Groom et al. (2006) Ecosystem “A community of organisms interacting among themselves and with their physical environment”

3 From Groom et al. (2006) Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management An approach to maintaining or restoring the composition, structure, and function of natural and modified ecosystems for the goal of long-term ecological and human sustainability It is based on a collaboratively developed vision of desired future conditions that integrates ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional perspectives, applied within a geographic framework defined primarily by natural ecological boundaries …entails considering interacting human and natural systems on large spatial and temporal scales

4 Redrawn & modified from Groom et al. (2006) Ecological perspective Socioeconomic (and political) perspective Biotic factors Abiotic factors Stakeholders’ concerns, needs & values Who are stakeholders? Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management

5 Modified from Groom et al. (2006) Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management Stakeholders – people who want to or should be involved in a decision or action because they have some interest or stake in it Have a real or perceived interest in a resource about which decisions are being made; its use, its protection, or its users Are dependent on a resource Believe that management decisions will affect them Are located in or near the areas about which decisions are being made Pay for the decision or action Are in a position of authority to review the decisions

6 Redrawn & modified from Groom et al. (2006) Ecological perspective Institutional perspective Socioeconomic (and policital) perspective (individuals, gov’t. agencies, academic institutions, NGOs, etc.) Biotic factors Abiotic factors Laws & mandates Staffing & funding Stakeholders’ concerns, needs & values Target for ecosystem approach Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management

7 From McLeod & Leslie in Groom et al. (2006) List of U.S. federal agencies U. S. policies historically have been implemented in response to crises in a piecemeal fashion, considering only a single sector, activity, or threat at a time The result is a fragmented patchwork of… laws… that are interpreted by dozens of federal agencies Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management

8 Quotes from Groom et al. (2006); Smokey Bear image from Wikimedia Commons; Rancher photo from NGS Effective ecosystem approaches involve a willingness to give up some degree of control ++etc. Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management Much of the history of natural resource management is a history of control and domination: of people, of resources, of other organizations

9 Modified from Groom et al. (2006) Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management Key elements Shared vision for ecosystem condition & its uses (i.e., goals), agreed upon through partnerships & collaboration, coupled with coordinated approaches to achieve & maintain targeted ecosystem condition Respect & ensure private property rights Establish baseline conditions, then monitor changes to help evaluate if goals & objectives are being achieved Integrate the best science available into the decision-making process, while continuing scientific research to improve the knowledge base Support actions that incorporate sustained economic, environmental, socio-cultural, and community goals Use an adaptive approach to management, to achieve goals & advance an ever-better understanding of the ecosystem

10 Modified from Groom et al. (2006) Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management Adaptive management Management that is approached as an experiment, and that responds in creative and innovative ways to changes Breaks the “chain-of-command” top-down model of resource management

11 Modified from Groom et al. (2006) Clarify mission & goals Develop conceptual model of system Develop management plan (goals, etc.) Develop monitoring plan Implement management & monitoring plans Analyze data & discuss results Adapt & learn Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management Adaptive management

12 Photo from Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management Adaptive management E.g., Fire Prescribed burns are important management tools, since they mimic natural disturbance processes for many ecosystems and help reduce risks of catastrophic events to human property and lives Getting the fire “regime” right depends on adaptive management

13 Logo from Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management E.g., Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) – part of the Antarctic Treaty System “The aim of the Convention is to conserve marine life of the Southern Ocean. However this does not exclude harvesting carried out in a rational manner.”

14 Map of member nations from Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management E.g., Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) – part of the Antarctic Treaty System Multiple stakeholders collaborate through this treaty to manage the fisheries surrounding Antarctica

15 Photo from: Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management E.g., The Everglades (where a principal resource is water)

16 Photo from: Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management E.g., U.S. Pacific Northwest Forests (where a principal resource is timber)

17 Photo from: Ecosystem (or Ecosystem-Based) Management E.g., Mississippi River Drainage and Delta


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