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© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-1 Single-Area OSPF Implementation Implementing OSPF
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-2 OSPF Overview Creates a neighbor relationship by exchanging hello packets Propagates LSAs rather than routing table updates –Link: Router interface –State: Description of an interface and its relationship to neighboring routers Floods LSAs to all OSPF routers in the area, not just directly connected routers Pieces together all the LSAs generated by the OSPF routers to create the OSPF link-state database Uses the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each destination and places it in the routing table
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-3 OSPF Hierarchy Example Minimizes routing table entries Localizes the impact of a topology change within an area
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-4 Neighbor Adjacencies: The Hello Packet
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-5 SPF Algorithm Places each router at the root of a tree and calculates the shortest path to each destination based on the cumulative cost Cost = Reference Bandwidth / Interface Bandwidth (b/s)
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-6 Configuring Single-Area OSPF network address wildcard-mask area area-id Assigns networks to a specific OSPF area router ospf process-id Defines OSPF as the IP routing protocol RouterX(config)# RouterX(config-router)#
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-7 Configuring Loopback Interfaces Router ID: Number by which the router is known to OSPF Default: The highest IP address on an active interface at the moment of OSPF process startup Can be overridden by a loopback interface: Highest IP address of any active loopback interface Can be set manually using the router-id command
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-8 Verifying the OSPF Configuration RouterX# show ip protocols Verifies that OSPF is configured RouterX# show ip route Displays all the routes learned by the router RouterX# show ip route Codes: I - IGRP derived, R - RIP derived, O - OSPF derived, C - connected, S - static, E - EGP derived, B - BGP derived, E2 - OSPF external type 2 route, N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1 route, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 route Gateway of last resort is to network O [110/5] via , 0:01:00, Ethernet2 O IA [110/10] via , 0:02:22, Ethernet2 O [110/5] via , 0:00:59, Ethernet2 O [110/5] via , 0:00:59, Ethernet2 O E [170/10] via , 0:02:22, Ethernet2...
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-9 Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont.) RouterX# show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 50" with ID Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Number of areas transit capable is 0 External flood list length 0 Area BACKBONE(0) Area has no authentication SPF algorithm last executed 00:01: ago SPF algorithm executed 7 times Displays the OSPF router ID, timers, and statistics RouterX# show ip ospf
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-10 RouterX# show ip ospf interface ethernet 0 Ethernet 0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address , Mask , Area AS 201, Router ID , Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State OTHER, Priority 1 Designated Router id , Interface address Backup Designated router id , Interface addr Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 60, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 0:00:05 Neighbor Count is 8, Adjacent neighbor count is 2 Adjacent with neighbor (Backup Designated Router) Adjacent with neighbor (Designated Router) RouterX# show ip ospf interface Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont.) Displays the area ID and adjacency information
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-11 RouterX# show ip ospf neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface FULL/DR 0:00: FastEthernet0/ FULL/DROTHER 0:00: FastEthernet0/ FULL/DROTHER 0:00: FastEthernet0/ FULL/DR 0:00: FastEthernet0/1 Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont.) RouterX# show ip ospf neighbor Displays the OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-12 RouterX# show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor , interface address In the area via interface Ethernet0 Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL Options 2 Dead timer due in 0:00:32 Link State retransmission due in 0:00:04 Neighbor , interface address In the area via interface Fddi0 Neighbor priority is 5, State is FULL Options 2 Dead timer due in 0:00:32 Link State retransmission due in 0:00:03 Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont.)
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-13 RouterX# debug ip ospf events OSPF:hello with invalid timers on interface Ethernet0 hello interval received 10 configured 10 net mask received configured dead interval received 40 configured 30 OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid: aid: chk:6AB2 aut:0 auk: RouterX# debug ip ospf packet OSPF: rcv. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid: aid: chk:0 aut:2 keyid:1 seq:0x0 OSPF debug Commands
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-14 Load Balancing with OSPF OSPF load balancing: Paths must be equal cost By default, up to four equal-cost paths can be placed into the routing table With a configuration change, up to a maximum of 16 paths can be configured: – (config-router)# maximum-paths To ensure paths are equal cost for load balancing, you can change the cost of a particular link: – (config-if)# ip ospf cost
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-15 Load Balancing with OSPF
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-16 OSPF Authentication OSPF supports two types of authentication: –Plaintext (or simple) password authentication –MD5 authentication The router generates and checks every OSPF packet. The router authenticates the source of each routing update packet that it receives. Configure a “key” (password); each participating neighbor must have the same key configured.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-17 Configuring OSPF Plaintext Password Authentication ip ospf authentication-key password RouterX(config-if)# Assigns a password to use with neighboring routers RouterX(config-if)# ip ospf authentication [message-digest | null] Specifies the authentication type for an interface (as of Cisco IOS Release 12.0) RouterX(config-router)# area area-id authentication [message-digest] Specifies the authentication type for an area OR
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-18 Plaintext Password Authentication Configuration Example
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-19 Verifying Plaintext Password Authentication RouterX#show ip ospf neighbor Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface FULL/ - 00:00: Serial0/0/1 RouterX#show ip route Gateway of last resort is not set /8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks O /32 [110/782] via , 00:01:17, Serial0/0/1 C /24 is directly connected, Loopback /27 is subnetted, 1 subnets C is directly connected, Serial0/0/1 RouterX#ping Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to , timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/29/32 ms
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-20 Visual Objective 4-1: Implementing OSPF
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-21 Summary OSPF is a classless, link-state routing protocol that uses an area hierarchy for fast convergence. OSPF exchanges hello packets to establish neighbor adjacencies between routers. The SPF algorithm uses a cost metric to determine the best path. Lower costs indicate a better path. The router ospf process-id command is used to enable OSPF on the router. Use a loopback interface to keep the OSPF router ID consistent. The show ip ospf neighbor command displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis. The commands debug ip ospf events and debug ip ospf packets can be used to troubleshoot OSPF problems. OSPF will load-balance across up to four equal-cost metric paths by default. There are two types of OSPF authentication: Plaintext and MD5.
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.ICND2 v1.0—4-22
1M ạ ng máy tính nâng cao-V1. OSPF Overview ◦ Creates a neighbor relationship by exchanging hello packets ◦ Propagates LSAs rather than routing table.
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