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CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Single Area OSPF Link State Routing.

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Presentation on theme: "CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Single Area OSPF Link State Routing."— Presentation transcript:

1 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Single Area OSPF Link State Routing Single Area OSPF Concepts Single Area OSPF Configuration

2 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Identify Distance Vector & Link State Routing Characteristics Periodic updates Topology changes trigger updates Updates sent to neighbours Updates contain changes only Updates contain entire routing table Increased memory & processing requirements Updates consume significant bandwidth Rapid convergence Updates sent to all routers Support CIDR/VLSM Slow convergence

3 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Identify Distance Vector & Link State Routing Characteristics Periodic updates Topology changes trigger updates Updates sent to neighbours Updates contain changes only Updates contain entire routing table Increased memory & processing requirements Updates consume significant bandwidth Rapid convergence Updates sent to all routers Support CIDR/VLSM Slow convergence

4 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Summary of Link State Features Responds quickly to network changes Use ‘hellos’ to discover neighbours Send updates when a there has been a change in the network topology Updates contain changes not whole routing table Calculates shortest path to each route in the network

5 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Link State Operation Routers are aware of directly connected networks known as ‘links’ Routers send ‘hellos’ to discover neighbours Routers send Link State Advertisements to other routers informing them of their links All routers add Link State Advertisements to their topological database Shortest Path algorithm calculates best route to each network When link states change LSA update sent to all routers which recalculate their routes

6 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Topological Database Every router advertises directly connected networks via Link State Advertisements Every router has it’s own view of the network – it builds a ‘topological database’ Router A is aware of 2 paths to – this provides redundancy should one of the routers fail

7 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Evaluation of Link State Routing

8 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Review – Link State & Distance Vector

9 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF OSPF Overview Preferred to RIP on larger networks Open Standard - IETF RFC 2328 Link State routing protocol Interior Gateway Protocol for Autonomous systems Metric based on bandwidth Supports VLSM OSFP can use ‘areas’ to allow hierarchical design

10 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF OSPF Key Words Adjacencies database Directly connected routers Topological Database Routes to every network Routing table –Best path to each network Designated Router a router elected by all others to represent the network area Area 0 backbone

11 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Designated Router/Backup DR All LSA sent to DR/BDR instead of to every single router Reduces overhead of LSA updates Standard on multi-access networks DR is single point of failure – solution is BDR

12 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF OSPF basic commands Router(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config-router)#network address wildcard-mask area area-id EXAMPLE Router(config)#router ospf 2 Router(config-router)#network area 2 NOTES process-id can be a value between 0 and 65,535 Wildcard mask NOT subnet mask used with network command

13 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF OSPF Loopback Address For OSPF to function there must always be an active interface Physical interfaces e.g. serial/Ethernet may not always be active – routing would fail Configure virtual “loopback” interface as solution Subnet mask will always be Router(config)#interface loopback number Router(config-if)#ip address ip-address subnet-mask

14 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF DR/BDR selection To suit the topology used the network administrator will want to choose DR/BDR DR/BDR election based on OSPF priority Lowest priority=DR 2 nd lowest priority=BDR Router(config-if)#ip ospf priority number Router#show ip ospf interface type number

15 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF OSPF Cost Cost is the OSPF metric used in path selection Cost is based on bandwidth Default bandwidth is 1.544Mbps – cost is 64 Cost can be 1 (100Mbps) to Cost is 10 8 ÷ bandwidth Gigabit Ethernet will require change to default cost – why? Router(config)#interface serial 0/0 Router(config-if)#bandwidth 64 Router(config-if)#ip ospf cost number

16 CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0 CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM Chapter 2 – Single Area OSPF Additional Configuration Network administrators can also configure LSA update authentication ‘Hello’ & ‘Dead’ interval timers Default route to routers outside the area/autonomous system


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