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1. Diunduh dari: 23/9/2013.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Diunduh dari: 23/9/2013."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Diunduh dari: 23/9/2013

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4 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

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11 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Tujuan integrasi Tujuan desain MM

12 12  Increasing interest in and advocacy for mixed methods  Evolving understanding of what is mixed methods research  Developing designs and innovative techniques  “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

13 13 Mentioned several approaches for combining qualitative and quantitative research Advanced considerations for deciding what model to use (literature available, prior studies, realistic design, expertise) Suggested to describe each method thoroughly “Combining qualitative and quantitative methods has gained broad appeal in public health research.” (1999) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

14 14 BUKU-BUKU TENTANG MMR Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

15 15 Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas Tashakkori Managing Editor: Vicki L. Plano Clark Journals Devoted to Mixed Methods: Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method Approaches A New Journal Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

16 16  Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008  Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009  Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

17 17  Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods?  Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10,  Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3),  Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12,  What are the limits for mixed methods research?  Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36,  Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36,  Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research? Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

18 18 Collecting data Analyzing and interpreting data Identifying a purpose and stating questions Reporting and evaluating the study Identifying a research problem Reviewing the literature Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

19 19 EthnographyCase Study ResearchNarrative research Experimental research Qual Quan Qual---- Quan Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

20 20  Multi-method  Triangulation  Integrated  Combined  Quantitative and qualitative methods  Multi-methodology  Mixed methodology  Mixed-method  Mixed research  Mixed methods Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

21 21 Results Connect data: Results Data Konvergen: Embed the data: Quan data Qual data QualQuan QualQuan Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

22 22  Validity – to corroborate quan and qual data  Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths  Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone  Process – quan provides outcomes; qual, the processes  Explanation – qual can explain quan results or vice-versa  Unexpected results – surprising results from one, other explains  Instrument development – qual employed to design instrument  Credibility – both approaches enhance integrity of findings  Context – qual provides context; quan provides general.  Utility – more useful to practitioners Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

23 23  Pragmatism (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003)  Focus on research question  What “works,” consequences  Multiple methods – large toolkit  Transformative (Mertens, 2003)  Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groups  Incorporate this focus into all phases of research Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

24 24  Notation  Typologies  Diagrams of procedures  Complex evaluation models  Reconceptualizing designs  Emergence of innovations in procedures  Unusual blends  Methodological issues  Data analysis techniques  Presentation techniques Key Developments Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

25 25 ApproachTypePurposeLimitationsResolutions QUAL + quanSimultaneousEnrich description of sample Qualitative sampleUtilize normative data for comparison of results QUALSequentialTest emerging H, determine distribution of phenomenon in population Qualitative sampleDraw adequate random sample from same population QUAN + qualSimultaneousTo describe part of phenomena that cannot be quantified Quantitative sampleSelect appropriate theoretical sample from random sample QUANSequentialTo examine unexpected results Quantitative sampleSelect appropriate theoretical sample from random sample quan qual Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

26 26 QUAN Data & Results Interpretation QUAL Data & Results QUAN Pre-test Data & Results QUAN Post-test Data & Results Intervention qual Process Interpretati on Triangulation Design Embedded Design Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs Parsimonious Designs ( Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007 ) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

27 27 Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs QUAN Data & Results Interpretati on qual Data & Results Following up QUAL Data & Results quan Data & Results Interpretati on Building to Before- intervention qual QUAN Intervention Trial QUAN Intervention Trial After- intervention qual Interpreta tion Exploratory Design Explanatory Design Sequential Embedded Design Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

28  Combinations of methods that could be chosen  The epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosen  The practicalities of carrying out the research  How the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?)  Tensions between approaches and methods

29  Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD) ▪ Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigms ▪ Mixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigms ▪ Combining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other? ▪ Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight? ▪ Triangulation – outcome of MMRD?* ▪ Data transformation  Quantitized data  Qualitized data 29

30  Emic and etic understandings?  Multiple research questions?  Multiple facets or contexts  Multiple of singular reality?  Mixed phenomena?

31  Sequential or parallel?  Linked or independent?  Respondent enrolment  Development of research instruments  Time required  Costs – value for money?  Necessary expertise?  Team organisation and communication 31

32  Where’s your theory? How does that help?  Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round them  Integration; triangulation; combination?  When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment?  Will your audience understand?

33  Methodological ▪ Differing findings ▪ Unit of analysis  Political ▪ Preference/requirements of ‘audiences’  Practical ▪ Time ▪ Money ▪ Age of data

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35  Multi-faceted nature of all phenomena  Contextuality  Micro-meso-macro dimensions / relationships  Agency and structure

36  Essentialist approaches  Constructionist approaches  Fixed state/status  Contextual and fluid  An inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated?  Children and vulnerability

37  Which one and why that?  Insufficient for some purposes  eg Policy development  Cannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationships  Structure and agency  Some presumptions are problematic 37

38  Multi-dimensional phenomenon  Access via different methods derived from an interpretivist stance  Can explore contingency and dynamic aspects  Draw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methods  Can explore structural relationships and agency/structure interfaces

39  Census data  National data sets (eg GHS)  National statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO)  Published research findings  Local surveys (primary data)  Local statistics (secondary/primary data)  Limited data about children  Pertanyaan Penelitian  Specific (hypotheses)  Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior research  Limited by what is available eg area; analysis unit

40 The example of children and non-domestic violence  Area level: ‘risky’ areas? ▪ Deprived areas (IMD measurements): are high crime rates against children associated with neighbourhood levels of deprivation?  Individual level: vulnerable people? ▪ Are children more or less vulnerable to non- domestic violence than other age groups? ▪ How does this vary by (eg) age, ethnicity, gender, imputed social class, household income?

41  Children are often seen as inherently vulnerable  Particularly the case in policy terms  Indirect challenge from sociology of childhood  Agency ; social actors  But ambivalence about children as vulnerable members of society

42  Interested in the different ways in which children might construct, explain and experience vulnerability  Theoretical integration with macro level understandings of children as vulnerable  Children aged between 10 and 18, living at home with at least one parent

43  No predetermined definition of vulnerability  Interviews to explore how they conceptualised vulnerability and how they responded to it  Photo-elicitation and video-journey interviews in addition  Focus here on integrated findings for non- domestic safety and vulnerability

44 Vulnerability emerges as contextual to the social worlds of the participants Reflects the ways in which children/young people are positioned between structures which constrain their actions on the basis of their age, and their own desires, opportunities, and abilities to be (relatively) autonomous social actors Vulnerability is a site around which the relationship between their structural position in their families, and in society more generally, and their status as social actors is played out

45  Using a mixed methods approach  Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violence  Would need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies 45

46  Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga:  Mereka membentuk satu kesatuan  Menjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain)  Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya

47 ▪ Integrasi sejak awal riset ▪ Selama pengumpulan data ▪ Melalui Analisis Data ▪ Melalui Interpretasi ▪ Sebagai hasil Presentasi 47


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