6Voice projectionThe audience must hear you clearly … especially those sitting at the back!Project your voice to an imaginary person standing at the back wall of the room
7Eye contactLook up at the audience…. … not at your notes … not at your shoesDirect your attention to that imaginary person standing at the back wall of the room
8Posture Stand upright… … not hunched Hands should be in use for the talk… … not in pockets … not behind your backFace the audience… …don’t turn your back on them, especially when pointing to the screenYou are telling them a story!
9Gestures Use your hands to make points Bodily movements help to keep the audience interestedIt’s like having a conversation with someone … … that imaginary person?
10Mannerisms Avoid distracting mannerisms This applies to involuntary hand movements … … or to bodily movementsWatch other people give lectures or seminars and you’ll see some strange things!
11Position Stand so the audience can see you Don’t stand between the projector and the screen… … if you cast a giant shadowAvoid blocking the view of a substantial proportion of the audienceBe aware of the needs of the audience, at all times
12Enthusiasm Look and act interested… …but don’t overdo it! Be positive in your approachIf you don’t look interested, your audience can hardly be expected to be motivated to listen to the talk
13Voice modulationDon’t speak in a monotone… … vary voice and expressionKeep your audience interestedYou can use voice modulation to:emphasise important pointsindicate uncertaintiesinsert a bit of humourMonotonous presentation can be wrongly interpreted as lack of enthusiasm!
14Use of notes Don’t read from prepared text Avoid reading the words straight off a slideUse your notes as prompts or remindersThe slides will contain cues to help you explain and elaborate
15Just talk at a natural pace Speed of speechDon’t talk too fast… … the audience needs to be able to followDon’t talk too slowly … … the audience may get distracted or even sleepyJust talk at a natural pace
16Clarity of expression Avoid abbreviations or lab jargon If you think your work is very specialised, briefly explain basic concepts … … in terms of the make-up of the audienceAsk yourself if the audience can be reasonably expected to understand the terms you are using
17Use of pointing devices Point to the specific part of the slide you are talking aboutAvoid vague waving of the pointer in the general direction of the screenWhen using a laser pointer, you may need to hold it in two hands to avoid the “shakes”Why bother to make elegant visual aids if you don’t use the material properly?
18Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse… Speed of presentationMove through in a well-paced mannerGive each slide its due time but not more than is neededMake sure the audience can keep upAvoid overly long Introductions … … you may have to rush the results and conclusions (losing the take home message!)Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse…
19EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION GOOD ORGANISATIONWELL PREPARED VISUAL AIDSINFORMATIVE AND ENTERTAINING PRESENTATIONARE THE THREE ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION