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Electronica analog and Digital system Electronical Aplly teory HOME.

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2 Electronica analog and Digital system Electronical Aplly teory HOME

3 COMPETENCE MAPING 23 Mendiagnosis permasalahan pengoperasian PC yang tersambung jaringangnosis Melakukan perbaikan dan/ atau setting ulang koneksi jaringan an Melakukan instalasi sistem operasi jaringan berbasis GUI (Graphical User Interface) dan Text Melakukan instalasi perangkat jaringan berbasis luas (Wide Area Network) Mendiagnosis permasalahan perangkat yang tersambung jaringan berbasis luas (Wide Area Network) Membuat desain sistem keamanan jaringan Mendiagnosis permasalahan pengoperasian PC dan periferal Melakukan perbaikan dan/ atau setting ulang sistem PC Melakukan perbaikan periferal Melakukan instalasi software Melakukan perawatan PC Melakukan instalasi sistem operasi berbasis graphical user interface (GUI) dan command line interface (CLI) Melakukan instalasi perangkat jaringan lokal (Local Area Network) Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Menerapkan fungsi peripheral dan instalasi PC Melakukan perbaikan dan/ atau setting ulang koneksi jaringan berbasis luas (Wide Area Network) Mengadministrasi server dalam jaringan Merancang bangun dan menganalisa Wide Area Network Merancang web data base untuk content server Lulus Melakukan instalasi sistem operasi dasar Menerapkan K 3 LH Merakit Personal Komputer Dasar KejuruanLevel I ( Kelas X ) Level II ( Kelas XI ) Level III ( Kelas XII ) 1 Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Klik Disini HOME

4 Module 5 Peripheral Perform Care Electronical Aplly teory Introduce electronics circuit Aplication digital age system HOME

5 Learning Objectives 1.Apply electrical theory. 2.Know electronics component. 3.Use electronics component. 4.Apply digital electronics concept. 5.Apply digital number system. 6.Apply digital electronics for computer Modul 1 Elektronika analog dan digital Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

6 Electricity and Ohm's Law These are the four basic units of electricity: Voltage (V) Current (I) Power (P) Resistance (R) Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

7 Definition Voltage, current, power, and resistance are electronic terms that a computer technician must know:  Voltage is a measure of the force required to push electrons through a circuit.  Voltage is measured in volts (V). A computer power supply usually produces several different voltages.  Current is a measure of the amount of electrons going through a circuit.  Current is measured in amperes, or amps (A). Computer power supplies deliver different amperages for each output voltage. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

8 Definition Power is a measure of the pressure required to push electrons through a circuit, called voltage, multiplied by the number of electrons going through that circuit, called current. The measurement is called watts (W). Computer power supplies are rated in watts. Resistance is the opposition to the flow of current in a circuit. Resistance is measured in ohms. Lower resistance allows more current, and therefore more power, to flow through a circuit. A good fuse will have low resistance or a measurement of almost 0 ohms. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

9 Ohm's Law There is a basic equation that expresses how three of the terms relate to each other. It states that voltage is equal to the current multiplied by the resistance. This is known as Ohm's Law. V = IR In an electrical system, power (P) is equal to the voltage multiplied by the current. P = VI In an electrical circuit, increasing the current or the voltage will result in higher power. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

10 As an example of how this works, imagine a simple circuit that has a 9 V light bulb hooked up to a 9-V battery. The power output of the light bulb is 100-W. Using the equation above, we can calculate how much current in amps would be required to get 100-W out of this 9-V bulb. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

11 To solve this equation, we know the following information: P = 100 W V = 9 V I = 100 W/9 V = A What happens if a 12-V battery and a 12-V light bulb are used to get 100 W of power? 100 W / 12 V = 8.33 amps This system produces the same power, but with less current. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

12 Application to computer Computers normally use power supplies ranging from 200-W to 500-W. However, some computers may need 500-W to 800-W power supplies. When building a computer, select a power supply with sufficient wattage to power all of the components. Obtain the wattage information for the components from the manufacturer's documentation. When deciding on a power supply, make sure to choose a power supply that has more than enough power for the current components. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

13 Introduce electronics circuit Electronica analog and Digital system HOME

14 Introduction to Electronic Components Resistor In the market there are different types of resistor, can be grouped into two types namely fixed resistor is the resistor value tahanannya still there and can diaturatur with hand, there is also a change in the value of automatic tahanannya regulated by light or by temperature. Resistansi usually written with the resistor color code in the roundabout or budaran can also color bracelet. The unit used is the Ohm (Ω). Unless the size of the resistansi, a resistor marked with toleransinya, color bracelet also be written after the signing resistan Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

15 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

16 Variable resistor (VR) Resistansi value of this type of resistor can be adjusted by hand, if the settings can be made at any time by the service (the button is) called potensiometer and when done with the screwdriver trimmer called potensiometer (trimpot). Potensiometer in custody can be made from carbon material and have also made of wire coil called potensiometer wirewound. For use in a high voltage is usually preferred wirewound type. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Variable resistor (VR)

17 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

18 Resistor and resistor temperature Peka Peka Lights Resistansi depending on the value of the thermistor temperature. There are two types of the NTC (negative temperature coefficient) and PTC (positive temperature coefficient). NTC resistansinya small when hot and the cold gets worse. On the PTC resistance when cold and a small increase when the summer. There is another type of resistor is LDR (Light Depending resistor), which depends on the value resistansinya ray / light. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

19 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

20 Capacitor (condenser) Capacitors can save loads of electricity, can frequently reverse voltage (AC) will hold but the DC voltage, measure the amount of power expressed in the FARAD (F). In radio, capacitors are used to: 1.Menyimpan load electricity 2.Mengatur frequency 3.Sebagai tool coupling 4.Sebagai filter (connective) Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Capacitor (condenser)

21 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Various kinds of capacitors used in radio, which has a positive and negative poles is called polar. There are also not having pole, normally in a non-polar. Condenser or elco and electrolyte tantalum condenser is polar. Condenser with a solid dialectric usually non polar, for example, ceramics, milar, silver mica, MKS (polysterene), MKP (Polypropylene), MKC (polycarbonate), mkt (polythereftalate) and MKL (cellulose acetate).

22 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

23 Variable capacitors (VARCO) Kapasitansi value of this type of condenser can be adjusted by hand, if the settings can be made at any time by the service (there is the key) is called the variable capacitor (VARCO) and when the setting is done with a screwdriver called trimmer capacitors. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Variable capacitors (VARCO)

24 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

25 Coil (Coil) Coil is a coil wire on a core. Depending on your needs, which are used on the radio and air core is ferrite core. Also called a coil inductor, the value declared in the amount of induktansinya Henry (H). Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Coil (Coil)

26 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

27 Transformer (transformer) Transformer is a two spool dililitkan have a core, the core can be the core ferrite core or iron. He can pick up AC power flow and can not be used for the DC. The first coil is called the primary coil that receives the input, the second coil is called the secondary coil of the output. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Transformer (transformer)

28 Integrated Circuit Integrated Circuit (IC) is actually a series of electronic packed into one small package. Some of the big series can be integrated into one, and packed in a small package. IC is a small load can be even hundreds of thousands of components. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Integrated Circuit

29 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

30 Math for a Digital Age A. Measurement-related terminology When working in the computer industry, it is important to understand the terms that are used. Whether reading the specifications about a computer system, or talking with another computer technician, there is a rather large dictionary of terms that should be known. The technician needs to know the following terminology:  bit – The smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit can take the value of either one or zero. A bit is the binary format in which data is processed by computers.  byte – A unit of measure that is used to describe the size of a data file, the amount of space on a disk or other storage medium, or the amount of data being sent over a network. One byte consists of eight bits of data.  nibble – Half a byte or four bits. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar Depan

31  kilobyte (KB) – 1024, or approximately 1000, bytes.  kilobytes per second (kBps) – A measurement of the amount of data that is transferred over a connection such as a network connection. kBps is a data transfer rate of approximately 1,000 bytes per second.  kilobit (Kb) – 1024, or approximately 1000, bits.  kilobits per second (kbps) – A measurement of the amount of data transferred over a connection such as a network connection. kbps is a data transfer rate of approximately 1,000 bits per second.  megabyte (MB) – 1,048,576 bytes, or approximately 1,000,000 bytes. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

32  megabytes per second (MBps) – A common measurement of the amount of data transferred over a connection such as a network connection. MBps is a data transfer rate of approximately 1,000,000 bytes or 106 kilobytes per second.  megabits per second (Mbps) – A common measurement of the amount of data transferred over a connection such as a network connection. Mbps is a data transfer rate of approximately 1,000,000 bits or 106 kilobits per second. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

33 Note:  A common error is confusing KB with Kb and MB with Mb. A capital B indicates bytes while a lower case b indicates bits. Similarly, multipliers greater than one are capitalized and multipliers less than one are lower case.  For example, M=1,000,000 and m= Remember to do the proper calculations when comparing transmission speeds that are measured in KB with those measured in Kb.  For example, modem software usually shows the connection speed in kilobits per second, such as 45 kbps. However, prominent browsers display file-download speeds in kilobytes per second. Therefore, the download speed with a 45-kbps connection would be a maximum of 5.76-kBps. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

34 In actual practice, the download speed of a dialup connection cannot reach 45 kbps because of other factors that consume bandwidth at the same time as the download. The technician needs to know the following terminology:  hertz (Hz) – A unit of frequency measurement. It is the rate of change in the state, or cycle, in a sound wave, alternating current, or other cyclical waveform. Hertz is synonymous with cycles per second, and it is used to describe the speed of a computer microprocessor. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

35 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar  megahertz (MHz) – One million cycles per second. This is a common measurement of the speed of a processing chip.  gigahertz (GHz) – One billion cycles per second. This is a common measurement of the speed of a processing chip.  Note: PC processors are becoming faster all the time. The microprocessors used on PCs in the 1980s typically ran under 10 MHz, and the original IBM PC was 4.77 MHz. In the start of the year 2000, PC processors approached the speed of 1 GHz, and approached 3.0 GHz as of the year 2002.

36 Concept Elektronica analog dan digital Electronica analog and Digital system HOME

37 Analog and digital systems The variables that characterize an analog system may have an infinite number of values. For example, the hands on an analog clock face may show an infinite number of times of the day. Figure 1 shows a diagram of an analog signal. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

38 Analog signal Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

39 Digital signal The variables that characterize digital systems only occupy a fixed number of discrete values. In binary arithmetic, as used in computers, only two values are allowed. These values are 0 and 1. Computers and cable modems are examples of digital devices. Figure 2 shows a diagram of a digital signal. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

40 Digital signal Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

41 Aplication digital age system Electronica analog and Digital system HOME

42 B. Boolean logic gates Computers are built from various types of electronic circuits. These circuits depend on what are called AND, OR, NOT, and NOR logic gates. These gates are characterized by how they respond to input signals. Figures, and show logic gates with two inputs. The ”x” and ”y” represent inputs, and the ”f” represents output. Think of 0 (zero) as representing “off” and 1 as representing “on”. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

43 There are only three primary logic functions. They are AND, OR, and NOT:  AND gate – If either input is off, the output is off.  OR gate – If either input is on, the output is on.  NOT gate – If the input is on, the output is off. The same is true of the opposite. The NOR gate is a combination of the OR and NOT gates and should not be presented as a primary gate. A NOR gate acts if either input is on, the output is off. The “truth tables” in Figure represent these statements in a compact form. Other logic gate combinations or extensions such as XOR, NAND. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

44 Boolean Logic Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

45 Digital Age System Decimal and binary number systems  The decimal, or Base 10, number system is used every day for doing math such as counting change, measuring, telling time, and so on. The decimal number system uses ten digits including 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.  The binary, or Base 2, number system uses two digits to express all numerical quantities. The only digits used in the binary number system are 0 and 1. An example of a binary number is Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

46 Decimal Number Systems Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

47 Binary Number System Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

48 The binary, or Base 2, number system uses two digits to express all numerical quantities. The only digits used in the binary number system are 0 and 1. An example of a binary number is It is important to remember the role of the digit 0. Every number system uses the digit 0. However, note that whenever the digit 0 appears on the left side of a string of digits, it can be removed without changing the string value. For example, in Base 10, is equal to In Base 2, is equal to Sometimes people include 0s on the left side of a number to emphasize “places” that would otherwise not be represented. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

49 Another important concept when working with binary numbers is the powers of numbers. The numbers 2 0 and 2 3 are examples of numbers represented by powers. These examples are spoken as “two to the zero” and “two to the third”. The power is the number of times that a value must be multiplied by itself. For example, 2 0 = 1, 2 1 = 2, 2 2 = 2 x 2 = 4, 2 3 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8. Taking powers is commonly confused with simple multiplication For example, 2 4 is not equal to 2 x 4 = 8. However, 2 4 is equal to 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

50 In Base 10, powers of ten are used. For example, in Base 10 means 2 x 10, x x x x 1. Note that 10 0 = 1, 10 1 = 10, 10 2 = 100, 10 3 = 1000, and 10 4 = 10,000. Caution: Although 0 x 10 = 0, do not leave it out of the above equation. If it is left out, the base 10 places all shift to the right and result in the number 2,365 = 2 x 1, x x x 1 instead of 23,605. A 0 within a number should never be ignored. However, the value of a number is not affected by adding zeros onto the beginning, or by ignoring zeros that are on the beginning of the number. For example, 23,605 can be expressed as Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

51 Decimal to binary conversion More than one method exists to convert binary numbers. One method is explored here. However, the student should feel free to use another method if it is easier. To convert a decimal number to binary, first find the largest power of picture that will “fit” into the decimal number Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

52 Example Use the table in Figure1 to convert the decimal number 35 into binary: Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar 2 6, or 64, is larger than 35. Place a 0 in that column. 2 5, or 32, is smaller than 35. Place a 1 in that column. Calculate how much is left over by subtracting 32 from 35. The result is , or 16, is larger than 3. Place a 0 in that column. 2 3, or 8, is larger than 3. Place a 0 in that column. 2 2, or 4, is larger than 3. Place a 0 in that column. 2 1, or 2, is smaller than 3. Place a 1 in that column. Subtract 2 from 3. The result is , or 1, is equal to 1. Place a 1 in that column

53 Example Use the table in Figure1 to convert the decimal number 35 into binary: Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar 2 6, or 64, is larger than 35. Place a 0 in that column. 2 5, or 32, is smaller than 35. Place a 1 in that column. Calculate how much is left over by subtracting 32 from 35. The result is , or 16, is larger than 3. Place a 0 in that column. 2 3, or 8, is larger than 3. Place a 0 in that column. 2 2, or 4, is larger than 3. Place a 0 in that column. 2 1, or 2, is smaller than 3. Place a 1 in that column. Subtract 2 from 3. The result is , or 1, is equal to 1. Place a 1 in that column

54 The hexadecimal number system The Base 16, or hexadecimal, number system is used frequently when working with computers because it can be used to represent binary numbers in a more readable form. The computer performs computations in binary. However, there are several instances when a computer binary output is expressed in hexadecimal to make it easier to read. One way for computers and software to express hexadecimal output is using “0x” in front of the hexadecimal number. Whenever “0x” is used, the number that follows is a hexadecimal number. For example, 0x1234 means 1234 in Base 16. This would typically be found in a router configuration register. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

55 The hexadecimal number system Base 16 uses 16 characters to express numerical quantities. These characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. An “A” represents the decimal number 10, “B” represents 11, “C” represents 12, “D” represents 13, “E” represents 14, and “F” represents 15. Examples of hexadecimal numbers are 2A5F, 99901, FFFFFFFF, and EBACD3. The hexidecimal number B23CF is equal to 730,063 in decimal format as shown in Figure Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

56 The hexadecimal number system Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

57 Binary to hexadecimal conversion Binary to hexadecimal conversion is uncomplicated for the most part. First observe that 1111 in binary is F in hexadecimal as shown in Figure. Also, in binary is FF in hexadecimal. One useful fact when working with these two number systems is that one hexadecimal character requires 4 bits, or 4 binary digits, to be represented in binary. To convert a binary number to hexadecimal, first divide the number into groups of four bits at a time, starting from the right. Then convert each group of four bits into hexadecimal. This method will produce a hexadecimal equivalent to the original binary number. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

58 Binary to hexadecimal conversion Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

59 For example Consider the binary number Breaking it down into groups of four bits to produce This binary number is equivalent to F7310 in hexadecimal, which is a much easier number to read. As another example, the binary number is grouped as Because the first group does not contain 4 bits, it must be “padded” with 0s to produce Therefore, the hexadecimal equivalent is 3D. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

60 Hexadecimal to binary conversion Use the reverse method of the previous section to convert numbers from hexadecimal to binary. Convert each individual hexadecimal digit to binary, and then string together the solution. However, be careful to pad each binary representation with zeros to fill up four binary places for each hexadecimal digit. For example, consider the hexadecimal number FE27. F is 1111, E is 1110, 2 is 10 or 0010, and 7 is Therefore, the answer in binary is , or Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

61 Hexadecimal to binary conversion Module1 Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

62 Converting to any base Most people already know how to do many number conversions. For example, convert inches to yards. First divide the number of inches by 12 to determine the number of feet. The remainder is the number of inches left. Next divide the number of feet by 3 to determine the number of yards. The remainder is the number of feet left. These same techniques are used for converting numbers to other bases. Consider that decimal is the normal base and octal, Base 8, is the foreign base. To convert from decimal to octal, divide by 8 successively and record the remainders starting from the least significant remainder. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

63 Converting to any base Module1Electronica analog and Digital system

64 Example Convert the number 1234 in decimal and to octal / 8 = 154 R / 8 = 19 R 2 19 / 8 = 2 R 3 2 / 8 = 0 R 2 The remainders in the order of least to most significant provide the result of 2322 in octal. To convert back again, multiply a running total by 8 and add each digit successively beginning with the most significant number. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

65 Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar 2 x 8 = = x 8 = = x 8 = = 1234 The same results in the reverse conversions can be achieved by using numerical powers. 2 x x x x 80 = = Note: Any number raised to the power of zero is one.

66 Using Numerical Powers to Convert Similar techniques can be used to convert to and from any base, simply by dividing or multiplying by the foreign base. However, binary is unique because odd and even can be used to determine ones and zeros without recording the remainders. Determine the binary equivalent of 1234 in decimal simply by dividing it by 2 successively. If the result is even, the bit associated with it is 0. If the result is odd, the binary digit associated with it is 1. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

67 1234 is even. Record a 0 in the least significant position, /2 = 617 is odd. Record a 1 in the next most significant position, /2 = 308 is even, /2 = 154 is even, /2 = 77 is odd, /2 = 38 is even, /2 = 19 is odd, /2 = 9 is odd, /2 = 4 is even, /2 = 2 is even, /2 = 1 is odd, Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar

68  With practice, the running dividend can be mastered and the binary can be written quickly.  Note that just as a hexadecimal digit is a group of four bits, octal is a group of three digits. Group the above number into groups of three, starting at the right.  = 2322 octal  For hexadecimal, group the binary number by four bits starting from the right.  = 4D2 hexadecimal or 0x4D2  This is a quick and easy method to convert to any base. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

69 Summary The student should understand computer terminology and know the difference between a byte, kilobyte, and a megabyte. The student should understand how frequency is measured and the difference between Hz, MHz, and GHz. The student should use the most effective method of converting number systems including binary to decimal and back again, binary to hexadecimal and back again. The student should be able to identify the places in binary and decimal numbers and know the value of each. Module1Electronica analog and Digital system Menerapkan teknik elektronika analog dan digital dasar HOME

70 THANK YOU Module1Electronica analog and Digital system HOME


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