1. Interviewing Children - Investigation Achieving Best Evidence (2011) (ABE) – England and Wales Guidance on Interviewing Children in Scotland (2003) – Scotland Achieving Best Evidence (under review 2010) – Northern Ireland
1. Interviewing Children – In Court
2. Cross-examination Defendant’s right to examine the evidence Chance to expose inconsistencies Attacks on the credibility of the witness
3. Refreshed Testimony Who - Criminal Justice Act 2003 What - Watch video / read transcript When days before / on the day Where- Witness comes to court Why - Long delays between interview and court date
3. Refreshed Testimony Why would it help? – Memory Trace Theory – The stronger the trace the better the recall – Refreshing could increase the strength of the memory trace – Reactivate memories that may have been forgotten
3. Refreshed Testimony In practice: – Witnesses are allowed to refresh their memory – Refreshed testimony not always made available Plotnikoff and Woolfson (2004) In research: – Elements of refreshed testimony Zajac & Hayne (2003; 2006) - Refreshed Valentine & Maras (2010) – Not Refreshed No study has included both
4. Experimental Procedure Live Event: Police Assembly 2-3 Day Delay Time 1: ABE Interview Day Delay Time 2: Interview Or Cartoon Time 2: Cross- examination
4. Interview Questions Time 1 interview: ABE style Time 2 interview: Cross-examination OpenClosedShiftForced- choice What were the policemen wearing? What day was the assembly on? Non-leading Misleading Distracter Leading Was the assembly in the morning or the afternoon?
4. Interview Questions Shift Question Example How many policemen were there? So there weren’t three policemen? How many teachers were there? So you could have mistaken a policeman for one of the teachers, so you think there were only two when there was actually three. Is that what happened?
4. Hypotheses Refreshed Group will be more accurate than Control Group Refreshed Group will change fewer answers to shift questions than Control Group
5. Discussion “I said there were two on there so yeah there were two.” “I can’t remember their names...I couldn’t remember it on there either.”