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CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 1 Chapter 5 Theories of Economic Development
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 2 Theories of economic development Theory – systematic explanation of interrelationships among economic variables. Purpose – to explain causal relationships among these variables, to understand world better and provide basis for policy.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 3 Theories in Chapter 5 Classical (19 th century English) model Marx’s historical materialism Rostow’s stages of growth Vicious circle theory Balanced v. unbalanced growth Coordination failure (O-ring theory) Lewis-Fei-Ranis model Baran’s neo-Marxism Dependency theory Neoclassicism (Washington Consensus) Solow’s neoclassical (Mankiw-Romer-Weil human capital variable) New (endogenous) growth theory
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 4 Classical theory Natural order determines price, rent, & economic affairs. Competitive economy promotes public interest. Freedom from government restriction. Institutions to supply money. Capital accumulation (savings) – output – wages. Division of labor – related to market size. cont.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 5 Classical theory (Cont) Free trade. Diminishing returns. Iron law of wages. Formulated amid scientific discoveries & technical change. Major flaws – population theory & lack of technological change.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 6 Marxism Historical dialectic – examines where society was, is going, and its change process. Movement from feudalism to capitalism to socialism – based on changes in ruling & oppressed classes & their relationship to each other. Reserve army of unemployed. Can socialism be introduced through parliamentary democracy?
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 7 Critique of Marxism Discussion of socialism not well developed. Worker revolt is weakest link. Overlooked possibility that workers’ & capitalists’ interests don’t conflict.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 8 Why didn’t Western workers overthrow capitalism? Marxist explanation Divide & rule. Exploitation of LDC workers. Media, education, religion support capitalist ideology. Powerful legal, police, military, & administrative machinery.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 9 Marxism & its variants Yet Marxism remains rallying point for discontented people. Class antagonism threat to rulers of any economic system.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 10 Legal, institutional & political framework, social consciousness Economic structure of society (material forces of production) Existing rationality, science & technology Mode of organization of production Degree of development of people Relations of production Appropriation of human labor product Social contradictions under which production takes place Principles of distribution Modes of thought, ideology, and Weltanschauung Marx’s economic interpretation of history
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 11 Rostow’s stages of economic growth Traditional society. Preconditions for takeoff. Takeoff. Drive to maturity. Age of high-mass consumption.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 12 Rostow’s traditional society Pre-Newtonian or 18 th century. Lumps past economies, DCs 19 th century, & LDCs today together. Neglects dualism of many low- income countries today.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 13 Rostow’s preconditions stage & radical change outside industry Increased transport investment – enlarge market & specialization. Agricultural revolution to feed urban population. Expansion of imports (especially capital), perhaps financed by exporting natural resources.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 14 Rostow’s central stage, takeoff Decisive expansion 2-3 decades. Radically transforms economy & society. Barriers to steady growth overcome. Late 18th-century Britain, pre-civil war US, late-19th-century Germany, post-Meiji (1868) Japan, pre-1917 Russia, post- independence India & post-1949 China.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 15 Rostow’s 3 conditions for takeoff I/NNP increases sharply, say 5 to 10%. Leading manufacturing sector stimulates growth through linkages. Political, social, & institutional framework to exploit modern expansion: entrepreneurship, retained earnings, banks & capital markets, foreign investment.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 16 Rostow’s drive to maturity Growth regular, expected & self- sustained. Urban, skilled, less individualistic, more bureaucratic labor force. State provides more economic security.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 17 Age of high mass consumption Alternative: welfare state, military power. US 1920s, Western Europe 1950s. Autos, suburbs, innumerable durable consumer goods & gadgets.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 18 Critique of Rostow Lack of empirical evidence (increase investment rates). No historical evidence of abruptness. Difficult to test. Stages define not explain. Stages not unique. Dualism (not just pre-science & technology). How does an economy move to next stage? Does self-sustained growth imply effortlessness? Are obstacles to growth removed? Is this Western (or US) model in disguise?
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 19 Vicious circle theory Supply side - Because incomes are low, low propensity to save for capital formation, which results in low productivity per person, which perpetuates low levels of income. Demand side – Because incomes are low, market size is too small to spur investment.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 20 Critique of vicious circle Saving depends on relative income. Personal savings small percentage of total savings. Large-scale economies overrated. Market is ample for most goods. Economies of experience important.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 21 Balanced growth advocates Meaning of balance. Balanced growth – synchronized application of capital to wide range of different industries – Nurkse. Big push needed because of indivisibilities – of infrastructure & demand – Rosenstein-Rodan.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 22 Critique of balanced growth Agricultural investment needed. Infrastructure not so indivisible. Economy that can undertake balanced growth is not underdeveloped - capital, skills, materials needed are immense. Not starting from scratch. Growth in 1960s & 1970s without massive investments.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 23 Hirschman’s strategy of unbalance Major shortage is investment by entrepreneurs & risk takers. Need development strategy to spur investment decisions. Need to consider how investment affects profitability of other sectors. Spur investment decisions through linkages – backward to sales of inputs & forward to purchases of inputs.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 24 Critique of unbalanced growth Too little emphasis on agriculture – contributes to industry through food, foreign exchange, labor, capital & larger markets. Imbalances should have ultimate balance in mind.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 25 O-ring theory of Economic Development - Kremer Based on 1986 shuttle Challenger. All of thousand components must work for the Challenger to function. Taiwan & Korean governments intervened to provide coordination. Human capital important.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 26 Lewis model Explains how economic growth gets started through structural change – increase in size of the industrial sector relative to subsistence agricultural sector. Lewis concerned about labor shortages in expanding industrial sector.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 27 Lewis model (cont) Assumes MP L AG = 0. Wages low but positive. w K higher includes inducement. Capitalist hires to MRP L = w K Surplus above wage is saved & reinvested. Increases productivity; more workers hired. When labor no longer available, w T Growth from structural change & savings.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 28
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 29 Critique of Lewis model MRP of labor in agriculture. Unlimited supply of labor in agriculture. As labor migrates, constant output divided among less claimants. Food prices increase from more demand from urban sector. Increased wages sooner than Lewis assumption. Not realistic to assume only urban sector saves.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 30 Fei-Ranis modification w k institutional wage. When MRP L ag = w, commercialization point & industry pays market rate. Each migrating worker takes subsistence to industrial sector – unrealistic. 19th-century Meiji Japan - paid less than subsistence wage. Eventually w k had to be increased to cover increased demand for labor & increased food price.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 31 Lewis-Ranis-Fei Supply curve for labor is not infinitely elastic. To get more labor, you need to pay a higher wage.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 32 Baran’s Neo-Marxist Thesis Application of Marxism to Africa, Asia, & Latin America. Western economic & political domination unfavorable. Western monopolistic business transferred to LDCs. Bourgeoisie in LDCs too weak to accumulate capital & provide institutional change.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 33 Baran - coalitions in LDCs Bourgeoisie ally with moderate leaders of workers & peasants. Form New Deal coalition – democratic, antifeudal, anti-imperialist, supportive of indigenous capitalists. Indigenous middle & capitalist classes unwilling or unable to reduce poverty and provide economic development for masses.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 34 Baran’s dynamics Bourgeoisie frightened & forced into alliance with landed interests & foreign capitalists. Government supported by foreign economic & military assistance. Progressive coalition breaks down. Overriding interest in preventing socialism. Needed: progressive income tax; landlords invest productively, public investment where private capital does not venture or where monopolies or where infrastructure required. Impossible – populist forces further polarization, radicalism & revolt. Impasse broken by expropriation & ethos of collective effort.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 35 Critique of Baran Potential conflict of interest between local & foreign capital. Nationalism & decline of colonial economic ties. Couldn’t revolution just transfer from one elite to another, e.g. USSR? USSR is Baran’s model – collectivism not market socialism. Is transition of squalor, workers’ poverty & other human costs inevitable? Class interests under socialism.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 36 Dependency theory - Frank Increased productivity & new consumption patterns in peripheral countries benefit small ruling class & allies. Underdevelopment means penetration of modern capitalism & archaic economic structures of third world. Economic development of DCs contributes to underdevelopment of poor countries.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 37 Satellite development in LDCs Interior Brazil dependent on Sao Paulo & Rio de Janeiro, dependent on Western capitalist economies. Satellites develop most when least dependent on DCs. Global subsidiary companies, unskilled labor in factories & plantations, education for colonial administration, foreign-dominated urban complexes, trade & investment from DCs contribute to underdevelopment. Should withdraw from world capitalist system.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 38 Critique of Frank Colonial development not self-directed, although some infrastructure development. Would LDCs have been better off without foreign domination? Afghanistan & Ethiopia. Taiwan, South Korea, Puerto Rico, Canada, Belgium. Need greater selectivity in dealing with capitalist DCs. Dependence defined in circular manner.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 39 Neoclassical counterrevolution 1980s’ economically conservative governments. View dominant in World Bank & IMF. Neoclassicals: slow growth from poor resource allocation from nonmarket prices & excessive LDC state intervention. Promoting free markets, privatizing public firms, free trade, liberalizing exchange, encourage foreign direct investment (FDI), reward savings, reduce government spending & monetary expansion, remove price distortions & regulations. Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand & Indonesia – free market approach.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 40 Neoclassicism’s Washington consensus (pp. 150-151) Price decontrol Fiscal discipline Reduce public spending Tax reform Financial liberalization Competitive exchange rates Trade liberalization cont….
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 41 Neoclassicism’s Washington consensus (cont) Domestic savings Foreign direct investment Privatization Deregulation Property rights “Universal consensus” “Big bang” or “shock therapy”
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 42 Criticism of neoclassicism Neoclassicism concerned with operation of markets, not with how markets develop or with policies to induce development (North, 112 in text). Stiglitz – Washington Consensus benefits few at expense of many, rich relative to poor. Income distribution & capital controls. Much of focus of book on neoclassicism (pp. 112-113).
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 43 Neoclassical growth theory Solow: Y = TK α L β α- Elasticity of output with respect to capital. However, Box 5-1 shows Solow model predictions are not plausible. Mankiw, Romer & Weil add human capital to model –predicts better. New endogenous growth theory, with T variable, does even better with prediction.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 44 Critique Neoclassical model poor in predicting; convergence doesn’t take place. Assumption of perfect competition, technological change exogenous (outside model), technology same throughout world, does not incorporate decisions by people, firms, & governments.
CHAPTER 5©E.Wayne Nafziger Development Economics 45 New endogenous growth theory T varies, explaining more of growth. Technological discoveries are not global public goods, as neoclassicists assume, but subject to state technology policy. Innovator receives (at least temporary) monopoly profits from discovery.
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