14 Exponent of Modern Economics #1 Adam Smith An Inquiry into the Natures and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)
15 Exponent of Modern Economics #2 Adam Smith How individual prices are set How prices of land, labor and capital are set Inquired into the strengths and weakness of the market mechanism Founder of Microeconomics
16 Exponent of Modern Economics #3 John Maynard Keynes General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936)
17 Exponent of Modern Economics #4 Keynes Theory of what causes unemployment and economic downturns. How Investment and consumption are determined How central bank manage money and interest rates Why some nations thrive while others stagnate
19 Great Depression #1 It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline
20 Great Depression #2 The Great Depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich and poor. Personal income tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%
21 Great Depression #3 The depression originated in the U.S., starting with the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929 and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). From there, it quickly spread to almost every country in the world.
26 Root of Macroeconomics #1 Microeconomics examines the behavior of individual decision-making unitsbusiness firms and households. Macroeconomics deals with the economy as a whole; it examines the behavior of economic aggregates such as aggregate income, consumption, investment, and the overall level of prices. Aggregate behavior refers to the behavior of all households and firms together.
27 Root of Macroeconomics #2 Macroeconomists often reflect on the microeconomic principles underlying macroeconomic analysis, or the microeconomic foundations of macroeconomics.
28 Root of Macroeconomics #3 Classical economists applied microeconomic models, or market clearing models, to economy-wide problems. However, simple classical models failed to explain the prolonged existence of high unemployment during the Great Depression. This provided the impetus for the development of macroeconomics.
29 Root of Macroeconomics #4 Three of the major concerns of macroeconomics are: Inflation Output growth Unemployment
30 Root of Macroeconomics #5 Keynes believed governments could intervene in the economy and affect the level of output and employment. During periods of low private demand, the government can stimulate aggregate demand to lift the economy out of recession.
31 Root of Macroeconomics #6 There are three kinds of policy that the government has used to influence the macroeconomy: Fiscal policy Monetary policy Growth or supply-side policies
32 Root of Macroeconomics #7 Fiscal policy refers to government policies concerning taxes and spending.
33 Root of Macroeconomics #8 Monetary policy consists of tools used by the Federal Reserve to control the quantity of money in the economy.
34 Root of Macroeconomics #9 Growth policies are government policies that focus on stimulating aggregate supply instead of aggregate demand.
37 Components of Macroeconomics #2 Transfer payments are payments made by the government to people who do not supply goods, services, or labor in exchange for these payments.
38 Components of Macroeconomics #3 Households, firms, the government, and the rest of the world all interact in three different market arenas: 1. Goods-and-services market 2. Labor market 3. Money (financial) market
39 Components of Macroeconomics #4 Households and the government purchase goods and services (demand) from firms in the goods-and services market, and firms supply to the goods and services market. In the labor market, firms and government purchase (demand) labor from households (supply). The total supply of labor in the economy depends on the sum of decisions made by households.
40 Components of Macroeconomics #5 In the money marketsometimes called the financial markethouseholds purchase stocks and bonds from firms. Households supply funds to this market in the expectation of earning income, and also demand (borrow) funds from this market. Firms, government, and the rest of the world also engage in borrowing and lending, coordinated by financial institutions.
41 See you next time... References : a)Economics (Samuelson & Nordhaus) b)Economics (Case, Fair) c)Teaching material adopted from Fernando & Yvone Quijano