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Company LOGO Introduction to Macroeconomics Andri Wijanarko,SE,ME

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Presentation on theme: "Company LOGO Introduction to Macroeconomics Andri Wijanarko,SE,ME"— Presentation transcript:

1 Company LOGO Introduction to Macroeconomics Andri Wijanarko,SE,ME

2 Company LOGO Definition of Economics

3 3 Definition of Economics #1 Paul A. Samuelson Studies how the prices of labor, capital, and land are set in the economy, and how these price are use to allocate resources.

4 4 Definition of Economics #2 Explores the behavior of the financial markets and analyzed how they allocate capital to the rest of the economy

5 5 Definition of Economics #3 Analyzes the consequences of government regulation on market efficiency

6 6 Definition of Economics #4 Examines the distribution of income, and suggest ways that the poor can be helped without harming the performance of economy

7 7 Definition of Economics #5 Looks at the impact of government spending taxes, and budget deficits on growth

8 8 Definition of Economics #6 Studies the upswings and downturns in unemployment and production that make up the bussiness cycle, and develops government policies for improving economic growth

9 9 Definition of Economics #7 Examines the patterns of trade among nations and analyzes the impact of trade barrier

10 10 Definition of Economics #8 Looks at growth in developing countries, and proposes ways to encourage the efficient use of resources

11 11 Definition of Economics - Conclusion Economics is the study of how societies use scarse resources to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people

12 12 Definition of Economics - Keywords of Economics : a) study b) societies use scarse resources c) produce valuable commodities d) distribute e) different people

13 Company LOGO Exponent of Modern Economics

14 14 Exponent of Modern Economics #1 Adam Smith An Inquiry into the Natures and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)

15 15 Exponent of Modern Economics #2 Adam Smith How individual prices are set How prices of land, labor and capital are set Inquired into the strengths and weakness of the market mechanism Founder of Microeconomics

16 16 Exponent of Modern Economics #3 John Maynard Keynes General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936)

17 17 Exponent of Modern Economics #4 Keynes Theory of what causes unemployment and economic downturns. How Investment and consumption are determined How central bank manage money and interest rates Why some nations thrive while others stagnate

18 Company LOGO Great Depression 1930s

19 19 Great Depression #1 It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline

20 20 Great Depression #2 The Great Depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich and poor. Personal income tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%

21 21 Great Depression #3 The depression originated in the U.S., starting with the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929 and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). From there, it quickly spread to almost every country in the world.

22 22 Great Depression #4

23 23 Great Depression #5

24 24 Great Depression #6

25 Company LOGO Root of Macroeconomics

26 26 Root of Macroeconomics #1 Microeconomics examines the behavior of individual decision-making unitsbusiness firms and households. Macroeconomics deals with the economy as a whole; it examines the behavior of economic aggregates such as aggregate income, consumption, investment, and the overall level of prices. Aggregate behavior refers to the behavior of all households and firms together.

27 27 Root of Macroeconomics #2 Macroeconomists often reflect on the microeconomic principles underlying macroeconomic analysis, or the microeconomic foundations of macroeconomics.

28 28 Root of Macroeconomics #3 Classical economists applied microeconomic models, or market clearing models, to economy-wide problems. However, simple classical models failed to explain the prolonged existence of high unemployment during the Great Depression. This provided the impetus for the development of macroeconomics.

29 29 Root of Macroeconomics #4 Three of the major concerns of macroeconomics are: Inflation Output growth Unemployment

30 30 Root of Macroeconomics #5 Keynes believed governments could intervene in the economy and affect the level of output and employment. During periods of low private demand, the government can stimulate aggregate demand to lift the economy out of recession.

31 31 Root of Macroeconomics #6 There are three kinds of policy that the government has used to influence the macroeconomy: Fiscal policy Monetary policy Growth or supply-side policies

32 32 Root of Macroeconomics #7 Fiscal policy refers to government policies concerning taxes and spending.

33 33 Root of Macroeconomics #8 Monetary policy consists of tools used by the Federal Reserve to control the quantity of money in the economy.

34 34 Root of Macroeconomics #9 Growth policies are government policies that focus on stimulating aggregate supply instead of aggregate demand.

35 Company LOGO Components of Macroeconomics

36 36 Components of Macroeconomics #1

37 37 Components of Macroeconomics #2 Transfer payments are payments made by the government to people who do not supply goods, services, or labor in exchange for these payments.

38 38 Components of Macroeconomics #3 Households, firms, the government, and the rest of the world all interact in three different market arenas: 1. Goods-and-services market 2. Labor market 3. Money (financial) market

39 39 Components of Macroeconomics #4 Households and the government purchase goods and services (demand) from firms in the goods-and services market, and firms supply to the goods and services market. In the labor market, firms and government purchase (demand) labor from households (supply). The total supply of labor in the economy depends on the sum of decisions made by households.

40 40 Components of Macroeconomics #5 In the money marketsometimes called the financial markethouseholds purchase stocks and bonds from firms. Households supply funds to this market in the expectation of earning income, and also demand (borrow) funds from this market. Firms, government, and the rest of the world also engage in borrowing and lending, coordinated by financial institutions.

41 41 See you next time... References : a)Economics (Samuelson & Nordhaus) b)Economics (Case, Fair) c)Teaching material adopted from Fernando & Yvone Quijano


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