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Classical conditioning Reminder of basic effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does Classical conditioning work?

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Presentation on theme: "Classical conditioning Reminder of basic effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does Classical conditioning work?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical conditioning Reminder of basic effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does Classical conditioning work?

2 Basic effect If Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response (meat powder)(salivation) then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (bell)(meat powder) then eventually Conditioned stimulus  conditioned response (bell)(~salivation)

3 Who didn’t know this already? Why is Pavlov famous?

4 Who didn’t know this already? “Acts of recollection, as they occur in experience, are due to the fact that one movement has by nature another that succeeds it in regular order” --Aristotle

5 Who didn’t know this already? Are there foods that make you salivate?

6 Who didn’t know this? If Unconditioned Stimulus--> Unconditioned Response (sour taste)(face) then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (sight of pickle) (sour taste) then eventually Conditioned stimulus--> conditioned response (sight of pickle) (~face)

7 Measurement You can’t answer questions effectively without an experimental method It’s not enough to say “she makes a face” How many times must she eat pickles? What if sometimes I offer a pickle-shaped candy? Can any stimulus be associated with any response? WHY does she make the face? -Here comes that stupid food -Associates sight of pickle with sourness -Associates sight of pickle with face

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9 Lots of questions you could ask What makes an effective CS and US? How might classical conditioning work?

10 Belongingness E.g., Taste  barfing, sight  shock CS CR CS CR

11 NOTE THIS WAS ACTUALLY DONE WITH RATS CS CR CS CR

12 Belongingness is observed in humans, too. Fear conditioning to snakes/spiders vs. flowers/mushrooms (dv = GSR)

13 What makes effective CS & US Novelty of CS or US Bell alone, then bell  food –Bell associated w/ background –Bell associated w/ no food Food alone, then bell  food

14 How does CC work? Importance of one stimulus being conditional on another.

15 How does CC work? Learning that one stimulus is conditional on the other means that you’re learning about the environment (food always follows bell) This implies that if one stimulus is not conditional on the other, you won’t get learning. Prediction 1: If you present CS and US randomly, you shouldn’t get learning. Prediction 2: Animals should ignore stimuli that don’t have predictive value.

16 Predictive value--blocking Group 1: Light  food Light Tone  food Tone  food Group 2:  Light Tone  food Tone  food Training 1Training 2Test Learning = bad Learning = good

17 The point of blocking The animal only learns what tone means if tone carries predictive information, even if tone predicts food.

18 Rescorla Wagner Model  V A =  V A  Where A= a particular US V A =Associative strength = a threshold of activation In blocking, asymptote for learning (  has been Reached during initial training, so further training  no learning. increases as the intensity of the US increases

19 Recorla-Wagner The power of the Rescorla-Wagner model is that it allows new predictions, some of them unintuitive. E.g., in blocking, you get no learning, despite repeated pairings. It’s also possible to lose associative strength despite repeated pairings.

20 Lose associative strength TrainingTest Light->food Tone->food Light & tone->food Arbitrary units

21 What does the learning look like? S-R theory S-S theory

22 Stimulus substitution theory (S-R) US UR CR CS Association But this doesn’t account for higher-order conditioning...

23 Higher-order conditioning light  food then bell  light

24 Answer The dog will salivate to bell.

25 S-S theory (rather than S-R) US UR CR CS Association Environment Internal representation US CS Response

26 Which is right? Early views favored S-R learning, and viewed the organism in Classical conditioning as passive. More recent views favor the S-S view, in which the organism seeks out information about the environment.

27 Rigor allows prediction Note how different this enterprise is than my casual observation of my daughter.

28 Application to humans?

29 Food aversions Bed wetting Advertising Drug tolerance & addiction

30 Bedwetting Wet Call Bedwetting Alarm/Pad Wet Call is a moisture sensing bed pad/alarm specifically designed for habitual bed wetters… The Wet Call bed pad is placed under the child and the alarm sounds when the pad’s sensor strips detect moisture.

31 If Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response (alarm)(waking) then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (full bladder)(alarm) then eventually Conditioned stimulus  conditioned response (full bladder)(~waking)

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33 If Unconditioned Stimulus--> Unconditioned Response (sight of babe)(positive evaluation) then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (sight of cigarettes) (sight of babe) then eventually Conditioned stimulus  conditioned response (sight of cigarettes) (~positive evaluation)

34 Opponent process model of drug tolerance Initially, the drug causes a big response, e.g., hypothermia The body struggles to get back to homeostasis (raise body temp.) Habituating to the drug means those processes (hyperthermia) kick in before the drug acts.

35 Opponent process model of drug tolerance If Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response (opiate)(hyperhermia) then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (sight of drug)(opiate) then eventually Conditioned stimulus  conditioned response (sight of drug)(~hyperthermia)

36 Are there really such opponent processes? Opiate AdministrationOpiate Withdrawal HypothermiaHyperthermia Decrease blood pressureIncrease blood pressure Peripheral vasodilationPeripheral vasoconstriction Respiratory depressionyawning, panting Relaxationrestlessness AnalgesiaPain sensitivity

37 Predictions: Craving for drug is an attempt to get back to homeostasis: Craving is caused by Conditioned stimuli e.g.: being offered “taste” seeing a friend shoot up talking about drugs being in locale where you used to shoot up seeing “works” Likelihood of overdose is higher in unfamiliar surrounding Drug rehab. should take place in typical drug-using setting


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