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Simple learning: Habituation and classical and operant conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "Simple learning: Habituation and classical and operant conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Simple learning: Habituation and classical and operant conditioning

2 Habituation Very basic learning A stimulus is repeatedly presented E.g., a light or a tone With no significant consequence Result: Initial response to the stimuli diminishes with continued presentation E.g., 1 st car alarm goes off – everyone rushes to help - Car alarms go off every day – no one rushes anymore - habituation

3 Habituation Panic! Calm Turkeys panic according to direction of movement Long necked geese and ducks common overhead – habituation = clam Novel short neck = panic Schleidt (1961)

4 Classical conditioning The famous Pavlov (1935)! Dripping meat juice into dogs mouths elicits secretion of saliva and stomach juices That is: An unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - food Elicits an unconditional response (UCR)- salivation

5 Classical conditioning Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus (bell ring) just before food (UCS) The bell elicits no response at first but eventually becomes associated with food so that: Presentation of the bell ring (now a conditional stimulus – CS) alone elicits salivation (now a conditional response – CR)

6 Classical conditioning: summary US (food)UR (saliva) Before Training CS (tone)No response CS (tone) +US (food) Training CS (tone)CR (Saliva) After Training

7 Instrumental conditioning Sometimes termed “operant conditioning” A form of associative learning where the animal is ‘instrumental’ in what occurs For example: In a simple maze a rat is rewarded by turning left with food and this increases the chances the animal will turn left subsequently entering the maze

8 Instrumental conditioning ? 50% chance of either direction

9 Instrumental conditioning 100 trials later!

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