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Chapter 6: Learning. Section 1: Classical Conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Learning. Section 1: Classical Conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6: Learning

2 Section 1: Classical Conditioning

3 Learning – any relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience Conditioning – learning (pairing different stimuli) Classical conditioning – one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus

4 Ivan Pavlov Studied salivation in dogs Dogs salivated when received meat Salivated at sight of assistants entering laboratory Pavlov rang a bell – meat given to dogs After a while, dogs salivated when they heard bell even if there was no meat

5 Unconditioned Stimulus (US) – stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned – The Meat Unconditioned Response (UR) - the automatic response – Salivating Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – Learned stimulus - The Bell Conditioned Response (CR) – learned response to a stimulus that was previously meaningless – Salivating

6 Higher-Order Conditioning A previously learned neutral stimulus comes to serve as a learned, or conditioned, stimulus after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become a learned stimulus

7 Taste Aversion Learned avoidance of a certain food May only take one pairing of food and illness to create aversion (most C.C. takes many associations)

8 Extinction When a conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus, it will eventually lose it’s ability to bring about a conditioned response CS is disconnected from the US – the result – CS no longer causes CR

9 Spontaneous Recovery Organisms can display responses that were extinguished earlier Sometimes response is weaker than original response

10 Generalization and Discrimination Generalization – act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar, even if the stimuli are not identical Discrimination – act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other Help people adapt to their environments

11 Applications of Classical Conditioning Can help people overcome fears of various objects and situations, or help children stop wetting their beds

12 Flooding A person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished Effective, but unpleasant

13 Systematic Desensitization People are taught relaxation techniques Exposed gradually to whatever stimulus they fear while they remain relaxed Takes longer to work, but not unpleasant

14 Counterconditioning A pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear

15 Section 2: Operant Conditioning

16 Operant Conditioning People and animals learn to do certain things & not do others because of consequences In classical conditioning – conditioned responses are often involuntary biological behaviors In operant conditioning – voluntary responses (we control) are conditioned

17 Reinforcement Process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again Skinner boxes held rats that were deprived of food Pressed lever – received food pellets Pellets reinforced lever-pressing behavior

18 Positive Reinforcement Increase the frequency of behavior they follow when they are applied Food, fun activities, social approval Different reinforcers work with different people What serves as a reinforcer at one time may not work later on

19 Negative Reinforcers Encourage a behavior by removing something unpleasant Discomfort, fear, social disapproval

20 Immediate vs. Delayed Reinforcement Immediate much more effective Short-term consequences provide more of an incentive than the long-term consequences Examples: – Most students do better with frequent tests – Difficult to quit smoking – reinforcement of nicotn

21 Primary Reinforcers Function due to biological makeup of the organism Food, water, warmth, sex (Don’t have to be taught to value these) Secondary Reinforcers Initially acquire their value through being paired with established reinforcers Money, attention, social approval

22 Reward Increase frequency of behavior Some say it’s the same as positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement doesn’t make you get inside organism’s head to determine what they find rewarding

23 Reward vs. Punishment Positive reinforcement: Telling a kid, "Great job! You said this perfectly!" or giving a High 5. This is good because, it makes the student want to learn more independently...he'll be satisfied with learning for learning's sake. This helps build self-motivation. Reward: Giving a kid candy for doing a great job or telling the winning team that they can eat lunch early. This is bad because, it'll teach kids to only work hard enough for a reward. Brattiness could arise with constant rewards.

24 Punishment Discourage a behavior by being applied Strong punishment can quickly end bad behavior Not the ideal way to deal with a problem

25 Schedules of Reinforcement When and how often reinforcement occurs Partial & Continuous

26 Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs New behaviors learned quickest using this method Only maintain behavior as long as you’re being reinforced

27 Partial Reinforcement Behavior not reinforced every time it occurs Tends to last longer after no reinforcement than continuous reinforcement

28 Fixed – Interval Schedule Fixed amount of time must elapse between reinforcements

29 Variable – interval schedule Varying amounts of time go between reinforcements – Timing of the next reinforcement is unpredictable

30 Fixed – Ratio Schedule Reinforcement provided after a fixed number of correct responses have been made People tend to want to get fixed number of responses “out of the way” If ratio is high, not very effective

31 Variable – Ratio Schedule Reinforcement provided after a variable number of correct responses have been made unpredictable

32 Extinction Repeated performance of the response without reinforcement Can spontaneously recover

33 Shaping A way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the right direction

34 Applications of Operant Conditioning Induce children to acquire gender-appropriate behavior patterns Play with friends who are generous & non- aggressive Adults reward kids when they express attitudes similar to own and punish / ignore contradictory attitudes

35 BFT & Behavior Modification Biofeedback Training – people receive reinforcement in the form of information Parents often reinforce bad behavior by pay8ing attention / punishing kids & ignoring when they behave well

36 The Bell-and-Pad Method for Bed-Wetting Teaches kids to wake up in response to bladder tension Sleep on a special pad placed on bed When kid starts to urinate, water content triggers a bell, ringing wakes up kid After a few weeks, kids usually cured

37 Section 3: Cognitive Factors in Learning

38 Learning Latent Learning – Learning that remains hidden until it’s needed Observational Learning – Learn by watching or being told how others do things – Learn to predict likely outcomes of actions by watching others

39 Albert Bandura & Observational Learning Acquire knowledge by observing and imitating others (Observational Learning ) – Learn to speak, eat, play – Used in modern advertising

40 Effects of Media Violence TV is a main source of informal observational learning Link between media violence and aggression – Supplies models of aggressive skills – See violence as an acceptable way to behave – Leads to emotional desensitization to violence in real life – More likely to behave aggressively and violently

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