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Constitutional Limitations of Interviewing and Interrogations in American Policing by Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, Robert Wood Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 1 Introduction Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
A crime is an act or omission which is committed in violation of a specific law. Crimes and their penalties are defined by state and federal statutes (also may be defined criminal activity in local ordinances). If the legislative body of jurisdiction has failed to define an act as criminal, it is not a chargeable criminal offense. Categories of Crimes Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
Criminal legislation lists the specific elements that must occur for the crime to be prosecuted. The actus rea is the physical action that must be taken in order to commit a crime. Most crimes also include the element of criminal intent, or mens rea. Crimes have two general categories: felonies and misdemeanors. Categories of Crimes (cont’d) Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
Although similar in structure, the federal court system is larger and more complicated than any state court system. Jurisdiction is the authority of a court to decide a particular case. United States district courts are the trial courts, or lower level courts, of the federal court system. Federal Courts Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
Each state has a minimum of one district court, but many have more than one. Also referred to as courts of original jurisdiction, these courts first hear, try, and judge the case. There are ninety-four district courts in the United States District Court System. District court judges are appointed for life by the President upon confirmation of the Senate. Federal Courts (cont’d) Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
The judicial districts are arranged into 12 regional circuits. The United States courts of appeals are intermediate appellate courts for the federal court system, and each circuit has a court of appeals. Appeals court judges are also appointed for life by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Federal Courts (cont’d) Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
The United States Supreme Court is highest appeal court in the United States, but it also has original jurisdiction over certain cases. There are eight Supreme Court Justices, and one Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. All are appointed by the President for life, and are confirmed by the Senate. Federal Courts (cont’d) Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
State criminal courts of original jurisdiction are usually divided into two categories, those of jurisdiction over minor criminal court cases (such as misdemeanors and traffic cases), and those that have original jurisdiction over more serious crimes (such as felonies and capital crimes). Courts with jurisdiction over minor crimes are called a variety of names, including county court, municipal court, police court, etc. State Courts Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
Depending on the jurisdiction, a lawyer who works for the government in the prosecution of criminal cases can also be known by many different titles. Usually called a district attorney, state attorney, or (when in federal court) a United States attorney, this position is responsible for the prosecution of cases on behalf of the government. Attorneys Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
The head of a prosecutorial office may be elected or may be appointed, and usually has deputy or assistant attorneys to assist in criminal prosecution of the jurisdiction. Every arrest does not result in prosecution. Often, prosecutors elect to charge individuals with lesser crimes committed as part of a more serious criminal act, or use those lesser crimes as bargaining chips during plea bargaining Defense counselors are also officers of the court, and may be public or private. Attorneys (cont’d) Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
The state must prove that the defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt as the American system basis is that a criminal defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Evidence should persuade a reasonable person that a particular fact proposed is or is not true. The Court Case (cont’d) Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
The full set of PowerPoint slides is available upon adoption. for more information. Copyright © 2013 Ross Wolf, Charles Mesloh, & Robert H. Wood. All Rights Reserved.
Courts and the Case Process. I. The Two Systems of Criminal Courts A. Federal and state courts (more trials take place in state courts) B. Federal Courts.
The Court System and Legal Rights CHAPTER ONE. I. Introduction A. The United States is a nation governed by laws. A. The United States is a nation governed.
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Virginia RULES Teens Learn & Live the Law Introduction to a Virginia Courtroom.
Chapter Eight, Section 1 & 2. The Federal Court System & How Federal Courts Are Organized.
Supreme Court Only 1 Have original & Appellate jurisdiction 12 US Courts of Appeals: Courts who Review cases on appeal from the districts. Also called.
The Judicial Branch. The basic function of the courts is to interpret and apply the law to settle conflicts.
COURTS, JUDGES AND THE LAW Key Terms on Judicial Branch.
Criminal Justice Today CHAPTER Criminal Justice Today, 13th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2015, © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Supreme Court State Courts Local Courts Qualifications No qualifications Appointed by President- approved by Senate Senatorial Courtesy › President.
The Federal Court System The U.S. Legal System. Role of Court Resolve disputes Interpret the law Set guidelines for similar future legal cases.
The Judicial Branch of Government under Article III of Constitution.
Judicial. JUDICIAL BRANCH BASIC INFORMATION Types of Cases Civil – involves a lawsuit filed (plaintiff), and (defendant) court decides responsibility.
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North Carolina Courts. The Role of the Courts North Carolina courts resolve disputes, including lawsuits involving private disagreements, as well as criminal.
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The Judicial Branch Chapter 12 Civics – Mr. Blough.
Essential Question: How does Georgia’s judicial system provide justice and protect the rights of its citizens?
The Judicial Branch. Court Systems & Jurisdictions.
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The United States has an adversarial court system. › This means that two opposing sides must argue their cases before a judge in order to find the truth.
North Carolina Judicial Branch Information adapted from
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Question #7 If the President and Congress disagree over a tax bill, the President can veto the bill. Which of these applies to a presidential veto? A.
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