Presentation on theme: "Why Do We Explore? NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research Professional Development Workshop."— Presentation transcript:
Why Do We Explore? NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research Professional Development Workshop
OER Mission "To support NOAA and National objectives by exploring the Earth's largely unknown ocean in all its dimensions for the purpose of discovery and the advancement of knowledge, using state-of-the-art technologies in evolutionary and revolutionary ways."
“Reaching out in new ways to learners of all ages with respect to ocean issues.”
A New Paradigm for Exploration A dedicated ship of exploration linked in real time through satellite and internet telepresence technology NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Length – 224 feet Beam – 43 feet Draft – 15 feet 46 berths, 30-day endurance
“The people who were putting up millions of dollars were asking my father, ‘So, Captain, what do you expect to find?’ and his answer to those people who were about to make major commitments was ‘If I knew, I wouldn’t go.’” ~ Jean-Michel Cousteau, 2005
Why Is Ocean Exploration Important in Today’s World?
Glass bead70 ml6 g 2 ml 72 ml Mass = how heavy the object is Volume = physical size of the object Density = M/V Density of water = 1 gm/ cm 3 6g/2ml = 3 g/cm 3 S Hint: 1 cm 3 = 1 ml M/V
Question: If the Volume of an object increases but the mass of the object does not change, how does this affect the buoyant force acting on the object when it is immersed in a fluid? Volume and Buoyancy
Answer: The object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Increasing the V of an object, in turn, increases the V and weight of water displaced when the object is immersed, thus, increasing the buoyant force acting on the object. Volume and Buoyancy
Earth’s average T is now warmer than it has been at any time since at least 1400 AD. Since the mid- 1800’s Earth’s temperature has warmed by about 1 ◦ F. Cause?
Climate Change Mountain glaciers are melting and polar ice is decreasing. As a result of this warming, what else do we know is happening?
Where Have All the Glaciers Gone Section 3, pg. 91 (7-8) Climate change is more dramatic in the Arctic Temperature increases at 2x rate of other regions Ice-seawater interface is important! Why? Activity: Make a photocube
See Diving Deeper, pgs. 23 for detailed discussion
History’s Thermometers Corals build skeletons out of calcium and carbonate ions. Carbonate ions (CO 3 -2 ) contain Oxygen. O 2 can occur as 18 O (0.20% of all oxygen atoms), 16 O (99.76%), or 17 O (very rare). Ratio of 18 O to 16 O in carbonate samples is inversely related to the water T at which the carbonate was formed – higher ratios of 18 O to 16 O mean lower temperatures.
Let’s Just Try the Math! We are finding the difference in 18 O/ 16 O ratios between a standard and a sample. [Sample – Standard] ÷ Standard x 1000 = δ 18 O ‰ Example : Base of Coral Sample #1 [.0020076 -.0020000] ÷.0020000 x 1000 [.0000076] ÷.0020000 =.0038 x 1000 = 3.8 ‰ A higher 18 O delta value = lower T A lower 18 O delta value = higher T
Climate Change ↑ CO 2 levels in the atmosphere over the next century = ↑ rate of warming and ↑ T = potential danger to human welfare and to the environment.
Web Site Okeanos Explorer Web site http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos Ocean Exploration Web site http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov
Types of Ocean Energy Waves: Highest energy density of any renewable resource Tides (dams): 16-24 foot tidal range needed to be economical Currents: 1% of Gulf Stream energy could power the state of Florida! OTEC (thermal): Solar radiation absorbed by the ocean converted into electric power (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) Wind: Turbines; offshore winds stronger than on land See Diving Deeper, pgs. 25-32 for detailed discussion BOEMRE
Methane Hydrates Frozen water molecules which enclose methane molecules; no bonds between them = Clathrate Formed at low temperature, high pressure May contain twice the carbon in all the coal, oil, and natural gas combined! Burns when lit!
What’s the Big Deal? Section 4, pg. 145 (9-12) Model methane hydrate molecule Student research on methane hydrates Model building
Methane Seeps http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahmjHLyF9GM&feature=related (Google You Tube and Methane Seeps) Chile Margin 2010 Expedition
Animals of the Fire Ice Section 4, pg. 115 (5-6) Marine Ice Worms Hesiocaeca methanicola Micrograph of ice worm living in hydrate bed at 800m, Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Shrimp
Human Health From Deep-Sea Sponges: Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agents From Deep-Sea Corals: Bone grafts (bamboo coral almost identical to human bone) From Tunicates: Breast, ovarian, and other solid tumor treatments From Bryozoans: Leukemia and melanoma treatments From Cone Snails: Potent pain-killer The ocean is a source for new medicinal compounds.
Human Health Sessile organisms are particularly promising! They have chemical defenses to: Repel predators Prevent rapid cell division Ward off pathogens and bacteria
Marine Biopharmaceuticals Production Challenges: Sustainable Use – synthesis in the lab, controlled harvesting, aquaculture Expense – submersibles can be $30,000+ per day; developing new technology is expensive Politics – permits, stewardship, fair and equitable profit sharing
Watch the Screen Section 5, pg. 177 (9-12) Screening natural products for biological activity Uses plant extracts, E. coli, antibiotic sensitivity disks
Can you guess which extracts were used? The control is on the top. Crushed red pepper Barbeque sauce Parsley Basil Rosemary Garlic Mustard
Can you guess which extracts were used? The control is on the top. Crushed red pepper Barbeque sauce Parsley Basil Rosemary Garlic Mustard Garlic Crushed Red Pepper Basil
Biomedical Models Marine animals as research partners Some organisms’ physiology is similar to humans: Toadfish – balance disorders Squid – nerve studies Sea urchins – cell division; FAS Horseshoe crab blood – impurities in medical products Image: NASA
Ocean Health Known, familiar threats to our ocean: Over-exploitation of larger species; overfishing Destruction of benthic habitats Invasive species Pollution (toxins, nutrients, marine debris…) See Diving Deeper, pgs. 33-40 for detailed discussion
Ocean Health Increased attention toward: Increased temperature Sea level rise Ocean acidification CO 2 increase in the atmosphere = ↑ in dissolved CO 2 in the ocean = ↓ pH ↓ carbonate ions essential for shells/ skeletal structures
Ocean Health Diving Deeper pg. 40 CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - H + + CO 3 2 - carbon water carbonic hydrogen bicarbonate hydrogen carbonate dioxide acid ion ion ion ion The Carbonate Buffer System Wait! I need carbonate ions for my shell! Bicarbonate forms more easily and quickly Grabs carbonate out of the system
7 Modern Reasons for Ocean Exploration Climate Change Ocean Health Human Health Energy Literacy Innovation Research
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/edu/welcome.html Digital Atlas
Display bathymetry layers Choose to toggle global data layers Open List of Local “cruise specific” data layers. Once opened, user can toggle layer display Select a Cruise to Display Select CTD Profiles and compare to historical averages Navigating the Okeanos Explorer Atlas (http://explore.noaa.gov/OkeanosAtlas) Turn on Dive Tracks and view images or videos captured See hourly or daily snapshot of ship meteorological and oceanographic sensor readings and ship location Open list of Daily Updates and select one to open and read 02/15/2011 Daily Update bubbles provide links to Full Daily Update Articles
How Do We Explore? Online Teacher Professional Development Searching for Anomalies www.coexploration.org/oe
Contact Information OE Web site: http://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.govhttp://www.oceanexplorer.noaa.gov NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research Education Director Paula Keener, firstname.lastname@example.org@noaa.gov Education Program Manager Susan Haynes, email@example.com@noaa.gov Lead Program Instructor Melissa Ryan, firstname.lastname@example.org@noaa.gov