Presentation on theme: "Economic Systems. How Does An Economy Work? Nations must answer 3 basic Economic question: What goods and services should be produced? How should the."— Presentation transcript:
How Does An Economy Work? Nations must answer 3 basic Economic question: What goods and services should be produced? How should the goods and services be produced? For whom should the goods and services be produced? The way a nation answers these questions defines their economy.
Types of Economic Systems All economic systems fall into one of two broad categories: Market (or Capitalist) System Command (or Planned) System No economy can be purely market or purely command Elements of both economies are found in all systems this makes all economies mixed
Industrial Revolution brings changes The Industrial Revolution brings further width to the gap between the rich and the poor or the Haves and the Have-nots Business leaders want the government to stay out of economic affairs. Reformers want the government to take a more active role and help the poor.
Mixed Economies Some government involvement through mandatory laws and regulations that businesses follow Labor Laws, Minimum Wage The government provides social programs for those who need help Medicare, welfare All economies are mixed they are classified based on how much the government is involved in the process
Continuum of Economic Systems Command Economy Communism On the far left Market Economy Capitalism On the far right Socialism Left of center but right of communism
Adam Smith Laissez-faire: economic policy of letting business/industry owners set working conditions without interference Adam Smith believed in the idea of free markets. 3 laws: Self interest Competition Supply and Demand
Discussion Why would workers/every day people be against laissez faire economics?
Capitalism An economic system in which business/industry are privately owned and money is invested to make profits. The government is concerned about its people and takes care of those who cannot care for themselves The political system is a democracy with leaders elected by the people The United States and Japan are examples of a Capitalist Economy
Socialism The factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all The main goal is to keep prices low for all people and to provide employment for many The government runs key industries (i.e. factories and railroads) and makes economic decisions More social services for all and free or low cost medical care Canada, Germany, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain are all examples of socialist economies
Radical Socialism: Marxism Karl Marx Friedrick Engels
Communism The government runs everything (Totalitarian government) Only one political party, the Communist party, runs the government All people able to work are assigned jobs – there is virtually no unemployment The government assigns housing, schools, and occupations There is little to no economic freedom Cuba, North Korea, and China are examples
Answer the following questions using the chart Liberal Reactionary Pure Democracy Representative Democracy Absolute Monarchy Totalitarian Dictatorship Capitalism Mixed Economy Socialism Communism 1.Can democracy exist in a communist system? Why or why not? 2.Can dictators promote capitalism? Why or why not? 3.Can there be a socialist democracy? Why or why not? 4.What is a mixed economy? Can an absolute monarchy promote a mixed economy? Why or why not? 5.Where does the United States fit on the political-economic spectrum?
Economies In Transition The breakup of the Soviet Union is the best example of a country changing from a Command Economy to a Market Economy State owned industries have been privatized (government owned businesses are sold to private citizens) Today even socialist countries are selling some of their government owned businesses to individuals