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2011 Administrative Law Judge and Mediator Training March 21-25, 2011 San Diego.

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1 2011 Administrative Law Judge and Mediator Training March 21-25, 2011 San Diego

2 BULLYING AND CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS JEROME M. SATTLER Copyright © 2011 Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

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4 Outline BULLYING AND CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS Jerome M. Sattler See Handout 1

5 Overview (Berlan et al., 2010; Bully Online, n.d.; Guerra & Williams, 2010; Klomek et al., 2007; Rivera, 2011; Sampson, 2009; Song & Stoiber, 2008) The aim of the education and mental health fields is to enable students to lead satisfying lives despite their disabilities The aim of the education and mental health fields is to enable students to lead satisfying lives despite their disabilities Bullying hampers their ability to do so Bullying hampers their ability to do so

6 Overview Bullying involves: Repeated harmful physical acts Repeated harmful physical acts Verbal acts Verbal acts Psychological acts Psychological acts Sexual acts Sexual acts Electronic media acts Electronic media acts

7 Overview that Threaten Threaten Insult Insult Dehumanize Dehumanize Intimidate another individual who cannot properly defend himself or herself Intimidate another individual who cannot properly defend himself or herself

8 Overview because of Size of bully Size of bully Strength of bully Strength of bully Being outnumbered by several bullies Being outnumbered by several bullies Being less psychologically resilient than bullies Being less psychologically resilient than bullies

9 Overview Bullies attempt to: Control Control Dominate Dominate Use power to frequently subjugate their victims Use power to frequently subjugate their victims Disempower their victims by undermining their worth and status Disempower their victims by undermining their worth and status Thus, two key components of bullying are repeated harmful acts and an imbalance of power

10 Overview Pushing Pushing Shoving Shoving Biting Biting Hitting Hitting Grabbing Grabbing Kicking Kicking Pinching Pinching Tripping Tripping Excessive tickling Defacing property Hazing Stealing Stabbing Choking Burning Shooting Examples of Bullying: Physical

11 Overview Insulting Insulting Teasing Teasing Taunting Taunting Threatening Threatening Spreading rumors Spreading rumors Name calling Name calling Slurs Ethnicity Gender Religion Skin color National origin Socioeconomic background Linguistic background Examples of Bullying: Verbal

12 Overview Demanding money or property or service Demanding money or property or service Writing insulting graffiti Writing insulting graffiti Examples of Bullying: Verbal (Cont.)

13 Overview Spreading rumors Spreading rumors Gossiping negatively Gossiping negatively Humiliating Humiliating Ignoring Ignoring Rejecting Rejecting Excluding Excluding Ridiculing Isolating Threatening retaliation Blackmailing Terrorizing Examples of Bullying: Social or Relational

14 Overview Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Voyeurism Voyeurism Sexual propositioning Sexual propositioning Sexual abuse involving: Sexual abuse involving: Unwanted physical contact Unwanted physical contact Ostracism based on perceived sexual orientation Ostracism based on perceived sexual orientation Examples of Bullying: Sexual

15 Overview Spreading rumors Spreading rumors Displaying personal and private pictures and videos on web pages intended to: Displaying personal and private pictures and videos on web pages intended to: Hurt Hurt Defame Defame Embarrass another person Embarrass another person Spreading insulting and character deformation remarks Spreading insulting and character deformation remarks Examples of Bullying: Cyberbullying

16 Overview Impersonating others in order to manipulate another person Impersonating others in order to manipulate another person Arranging to meet victim and perform some lewd act Arranging to meet victim and perform some lewd act See Handout 2 for Glossary of Internet Terms See Handout 2 for Glossary of Internet Terms Examples of Bullying: Cyberbullying (Cont.)

17 Overview Bullying is a pernicious problem that occurs in: Bullying is a pernicious problem that occurs in: Schools Schools Playgrounds Playgrounds Neighborhoods Neighborhoods Communities Communities Homes Homes Work places Work places

18 Overview Bullying undermines a child’s fundamental right to learn in a safe school environment Bullying undermines a child’s fundamental right to learn in a safe school environment Bullying can result in irreparable harm to the victim Bullying can result in irreparable harm to the victim

19 Overview Bullying affects not only the health and well-being of the victim, but also the: Bullying affects not only the health and well-being of the victim, but also the: Victim’s peers and family Victim’s peers and family School School Community Community Society at large Society at large Perpetrators Perpetrators Bystanders Bystanders Other children not directly involved Other children not directly involved

20 Overview Bullying is not linked to (results not clear): Bullying is not linked to (results not clear): Economic disadvantage Economic disadvantage Ethnic minority status Ethnic minority status Type of community (urban or rural) Type of community (urban or rural)

21 Overview Children who experience bullying across multiple years may be more at risk for developing psychological and physical disorders than those who experience limited bullying Children who experience bullying across multiple years may be more at risk for developing psychological and physical disorders than those who experience limited bullying U.S. Secret Service and the Department of Education noted that 71% of school shooters between 1974 and 2000 were victims of chronic bullying U.S. Secret Service and the Department of Education noted that 71% of school shooters between 1974 and 2000 were victims of chronic bullying

22 Overview Bullying occurs more often at school than on the way to and from school Bullying occurs more often at school than on the way to and from school Male students who are bullies tend to rely on physical aggression Male students who are bullies tend to rely on physical aggression Males who are victims tend to experience more overt physical victimization than females Males who are victims tend to experience more overt physical victimization than females

23 Overview Females experience more indirect relational victimization (e.g., humiliation, manipulation of relationships) than males in the form of: Females experience more indirect relational victimization (e.g., humiliation, manipulation of relationships) than males in the form of: Teasing Teasing Rumor-spreading Rumor-spreading Exclusion Exclusion Social isolation Social isolation

24 Overview Indirect relational victimization has a greater impact on mental conditions (e.g., depression, loneliness) than overt victimization (e.g., physical harassment) Indirect relational victimization has a greater impact on mental conditions (e.g., depression, loneliness) than overt victimization (e.g., physical harassment) Females are more vulnerable to stressful life events than males, which makes them more vulnerable to depression Females are more vulnerable to stressful life events than males, which makes them more vulnerable to depression Females who are victims when young are more likely to commit suicide in later years than males Females who are victims when young are more likely to commit suicide in later years than males

25 Overview Gay, lesbian, and bisexual students are more likely to report being bullied than heterosexual students Gay, lesbian, and bisexual students are more likely to report being bullied than heterosexual students Male students are more likely to bully than female students Male students are more likely to bully than female students

26 Overview Male and female students have about equal rates of victimization Male and female students have about equal rates of victimization Bullies operate alone in about 50% of the cases and with other students in the other 50% of cases Bullies operate alone in about 50% of the cases and with other students in the other 50% of cases

27 Overview Bullying occurs primarily during elementary school years, and to a lesser extent during middle school years and during high school years Bullying occurs primarily during elementary school years, and to a lesser extent during middle school years and during high school years

28 Overview Bullying by male students declines substantially after age 15 Bullying by male students declines substantially after age 15 Bullying by female students begins to decline at age 14 Bullying by female students begins to decline at age 14 Classes with students who have a disability have more bullies and more victims than classes with students without disabilities Classes with students who have a disability have more bullies and more victims than classes with students without disabilities

29 Overview The degree of a school principal’s involvement in school programs designed to prevent bullying may help to determine the level of bullying at the school The degree of a school principal’s involvement in school programs designed to prevent bullying may help to determine the level of bullying at the school Because normative beliefs about social relations form early in development, prevention programs should begin during early elementary school years Because normative beliefs about social relations form early in development, prevention programs should begin during early elementary school years

30 Overview Bullying emerges in part as a way of negotiating the developmental challenges of adolescence Bullying emerges in part as a way of negotiating the developmental challenges of adolescence Bullying prevention programs may prevent more severe violent acts Bullying prevention programs may prevent more severe violent acts “Bullying prevention should be integrated into everything that schools do” (Holly Priebe-Diaz, cited by Rivera, 2011) “Bullying prevention should be integrated into everything that schools do” (Holly Priebe-Diaz, cited by Rivera, 2011)

31 Overview New Jersey enacted a revised antibullying law in January 2011: New Jersey enacted a revised antibullying law in January 2011: “requires that public school administrators and teachers receive training to identify bullying and that districts be graded on their efforts” (Rivera, 2011, p. AA3) “requires that public school administrators and teachers receive training to identify bullying and that districts be graded on their efforts” (Rivera, 2011, p. AA3)

32 Overview Incidence of Bullying A national survey conducted in 2007–2008 found the following (Finkelhor, Turner, Ormrod, Hamby, & Kracke, 2009): 13.2% of youth reported having been physically bullied in the past year 13.2% of youth reported having been physically bullied in the past year 19.7% reported having been teased or emotionally bullied 19.7% reported having been teased or emotionally bullied

33 Overview Incidence of Bullying (Cont.) 21.6% of youth reported having been physically bullied in their lifetime 21.6% of youth reported having been physically bullied in their lifetime 30% reported having been teased or emotionally bullied 30% reported having been teased or emotionally bullied 6- to 9-year-olds had the highest rate of having been physically bullied both in the past year (21.5%) and during their lifetime (28.0%) 6- to 9-year-olds had the highest rate of having been physically bullied both in the past year (21.5%) and during their lifetime (28.0%)

34 Overview Incidence of Bullying (Cont.) 6- to 9-year-olds had the highest rate of having been teased or emotionally bullied in the past year (30.4%), but no life time rate was reported 6- to 9-year-olds had the highest rate of having been teased or emotionally bullied in the past year (30.4%), but no life time rate was reported 14- to 17-year-olds had the highest rate of having been harassed on the Internet both in the past year (5.6%) and during their lifetime (7.9%) 14- to 17-year-olds had the highest rate of having been harassed on the Internet both in the past year (5.6%) and during their lifetime (7.9%)

35 Case of Phoebe Prince (CNN, 2010) Phoebe Prince, a teenager living in Northampton, MA, committed suicide as a result of extreme bullying by six teenagers who have been criminally charged in connection with her death. Phoebe Prince, a teenager living in Northampton, MA, committed suicide as a result of extreme bullying by six teenagers who have been criminally charged in connection with her death.

36 Case of Phoebe Prince On the day she committed suicide she had a torturous day in which she was subjected to verbal harassment and threatened with physical abuse. On the day she committed suicide she had a torturous day in which she was subjected to verbal harassment and threatened with physical abuse. She was tormented by other students who called her names like “druggie” and “slut” to her face and on the Internet, and increasingly threatening her with physical violence. She was tormented by other students who called her names like “druggie” and “slut” to her face and on the Internet, and increasingly threatening her with physical violence.

37 Case of Phoebe Prince This frequent and severe bullying went on intermittently and then more persistently for three months. This frequent and severe bullying went on intermittently and then more persistently for three months. One or more of the teenagers was charged with violations of Phoebe’s civil rights, criminal harassment, statutory rape, stalking, and disturbance of a school assembly. One or more of the teenagers was charged with violations of Phoebe’s civil rights, criminal harassment, statutory rape, stalking, and disturbance of a school assembly.

38 Case of Phoebe Prince Phoebe's mother reported the bullying twice to school officials, but nothing was done. Phoebe's mother reported the bullying twice to school officials, but nothing was done. The school staff will not be facing any criminal charges. The school staff will not be facing any criminal charges. According to the district attorney, cyberbullying was not the main cause in Phoebe's death, but it played a “secondary role.” According to the district attorney, cyberbullying was not the main cause in Phoebe's death, but it played a “secondary role.”

39 Case of Phoebe Prince “The news of Phoebe’s death has caused a public outcry, with many demanding more be done within the school system to combat bullying” (Colby & Bruno, 2010, p. 1). “The news of Phoebe’s death has caused a public outcry, with many demanding more be done within the school system to combat bullying” (Colby & Bruno, 2010, p. 1). The case points out that the community will need to get more involved in recognizing how to deal with bullying. The case points out that the community will need to get more involved in recognizing how to deal with bullying.

40 Case of Phoebe Prince Families, the public, and the schools will need: Families, the public, and the schools will need: To recognize the signs of bullying and provide appropriate counseling, To recognize the signs of bullying and provide appropriate counseling, To put bullies on notice that appropriate action will be taken if bullying does not cease (Cont.) To put bullies on notice that appropriate action will be taken if bullying does not cease (Cont.)

41 Case of Phoebe Prince To follow up with plainly stated actions To follow up with plainly stated actions To help parents implement appropriate guidelines for internet usage at home and build their children’s confidence and self-esteem so that they will not become a target for bullies To help parents implement appropriate guidelines for internet usage at home and build their children’s confidence and self-esteem so that they will not become a target for bullies

42 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 3 to 5 years: Snatching another child’s food Snatching another child’s food Pushing another child Pushing another child Hitting another child Hitting another child Pinching another child Pinching another child Biting another child Biting another child Defacing another child’s written work Defacing another child’s written work Tearing another child’s clothes Tearing another child’s clothes

43 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 5 to 10 years: Pushing another child Pushing another child Shoving another child Shoving another child Tripping another child Tripping another child Hitting another child Hitting another child Pinching another child Pinching another child

44 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 5 to 10 years (Cont.): Biting another child Biting another child Teasing another child Teasing another child Calling another child insulting names (including racial slurs and insults) Calling another child insulting names (including racial slurs and insults) Shouting at another child Shouting at another child Rejecting or isolating another child Rejecting or isolating another child Excessive tickling Excessive tickling

45 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 10 to 15 years: Using abusive language toward another child Using abusive language toward another child Making verbal physical threats to another child Making verbal physical threats to another child Writing obnoxious s to another child Writing obnoxious s to another child Writing graffiti about another child Writing graffiti about another child

46 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 15 to 18 years: Demanding money from another child Demanding money from another child Demanding property from another child Demanding property from another child Demanding another child to perform some service Demanding another child to perform some service Stabbing another child Stabbing another child Choking another child Choking another child Burning another child Burning another child

47 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 15 to 18 years (Cont.): Shooting another child Shooting another child Blackmailing another child Blackmailing another child Terrorizing another child Terrorizing another child Daring another child to perform some dangerous act Daring another child to perform some dangerous act

48 Developmental Correlates of Bullying (California Department of Education, 2010; Med India, n.d.) Ages 15 to 18 years (Cont.): Developing a Web site devoted to degrading another child Developing a Web site devoted to degrading another child Asking other children to use a Web site to degrade another child Asking other children to use a Web site to degrade another child

49 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Intensity: Mildly intense versus extremely intense Frequency: Continuous versus sporadic Example: Irritation vs. fury Example: Continuous physical or verbal threats vs. sporadic physical or verbal threats

50 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Presence of victim: Present versus absent Example: Disparaging comments made in victim’s presence vs. disparaging comments made in victim’s absence

51 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Clarity of intent to harm: Clear (overt) versus subtle (covert) Example: Clearly aims to hit victim vs. appears to hit victim accidentally

52 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Emotion: Expressed versus not expressed Example: Anger or pleasure is displayed when disparaging victim vs. no emotion is displayed when disparaging victim

53 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Physical contact: Direct contact versus no direct contact Example: Hits victim vs. threatens to hit victim

54 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Verbal message: Present versus absent Example: Disparaging comments made while hitting victim vs. no disparaging comments made while hitting victim

55 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Nonverbal gestures: Present versus absent Example: Rolls eyes when making disparaging comments vs. maintains a straight face when making disparaging comments

56 Dimensions of Bullying (Benenson, 2009) Number of bullies: One versus several Goal of bully: Physical harm vs. verbal harm vs. social harm Example: Bullies victim alone vs. bullies victim along with others Example: Intent to physically harm, belittle, or ostracize victim

57 Bullying is Multidetermined Bullying is a complex ecological phenomenon involving multiple factors (Song & Stoiber, 2008): 1. Individual factors Personality Personality Temperament Temperament Behavior Behavior Social competencies Social competencies Interpersonal relations Interpersonal relations Emotional regulation Emotional regulation

58 Bullying is Multidetermined 2. Family and peer factors Family dynamics and processes Family dynamics and processes Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic status Composition of family Composition of family Cultural practices Cultural practices Religious affiliation Religious affiliation Types of peers Types of peers Peer relationships Peer relationships

59 Bullying is Multidetermined 3. School factors Ability of staff to carry out the spirit as well as the letter of laws governing services for children with special needs as well as all other children Ability of staff to carry out the spirit as well as the letter of laws governing services for children with special needs as well as all other children Implementation of bullying prevention lessens Implementation of bullying prevention lessens Types of services, including supports, offered by schools Types of services, including supports, offered by schools Teachers’ beliefs about bullying Teachers’ beliefs about bullying

60 Bullying is Multidetermined 3. School factors (Cont.) Victim and peers beliefs and responses to bullying Victim and peers beliefs and responses to bullying Bystanders’ beliefs about bullying Bystanders’ beliefs about bullying Layout of classroom, school building cafeteria, playground Layout of classroom, school building cafeteria, playground Class rules Class rules Teacher behaviors Teacher behaviors School culture School culture Types of after-hours activities Types of after-hours activities

61 Bullying is Multidetermined 4. Community and cultural factors Level of cohesion Level of cohesion Level of safety of community Level of safety of community Types of exposure to violence Types of exposure to violence Attitudes toward bullying Attitudes toward bullying Bullying prevention efforts Bullying prevention efforts Types of resources Types of resources Attitudes toward aggressive behavior Attitudes toward aggressive behavior

62 Bullying is Multidetermined Handout 3 illustrates qualities that enhance or prevent bullying for each of the four factors

63 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Physical Signs Has unexplained bruises, scratches, or cuts (for bullying only) Has unexplained bruises, scratches, or cuts (for bullying only) Has torn or damaged clothes (for bullying only) Has torn or damaged clothes (for bullying only) Brings to school damaged possessions or reports them ‘lost’ (for bullying only) Brings to school damaged possessions or reports them ‘lost’ (for bullying only) Complains of tiredness and fatigue Complains of tiredness and fatigue

64 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Physical Signs (Cont.) Complains of illness, such as nonspecific pains or headaches Complains of illness, such as nonspecific pains or headaches Has loss of appetite Has loss of appetite Has sleep difficulties Has sleep difficulties Wets bed Wets bed

65 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Behavioral Signs Shows increased quietness Shows increased quietness Takes an “illogical” route when walking to and from school Takes an “illogical” route when walking to and from school Shows little interest in school work Shows little interest in school work Develops an intense dislike of school Develops an intense dislike of school Avoids some classes Avoids some classes Has unexplained absences and may become truant Has unexplained absences and may become truant

66 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Behavioral Signs (Cont.) Has deteriorating school performance Has deteriorating school performance Fears walking to and from school Fears walking to and from school Fears riding on a school bus Fears riding on a school bus Stays late at school in order to avoid encounters with other students Stays late at school in order to avoid encounters with other students Refuses to disclose bullying because of a sense of embarrassment Refuses to disclose bullying because of a sense of embarrassment

67 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Behavioral Signs (Cont.) Has poor social skills Has poor social skills Requests additional money for lunch from teachers or other staff members Requests additional money for lunch from teachers or other staff members Steals money in order to pay bully Steals money in order to pay bully Shows changes in eating patterns at lunch, such as poor eating Shows changes in eating patterns at lunch, such as poor eating Takes “protection” objects to school (stick, knife, gun, etc.) Takes “protection” objects to school (stick, knife, gun, etc.)

68 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Behavioral Signs (Cont.) Displays “victim” body language: Displays “victim” body language: Hangs head Hangs head Hunches shoulders Hunches shoulders Avoids eye contact Avoids eye contact Talks about running away Talks about running away Threatens violence to self and/or others Threatens violence to self and/or others

69 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Emotional Signs Feels picked on or persecuted because of, for example: Feels picked on or persecuted because of, for example: Having a disability Having a disability Being overweight or underweight Being overweight or underweight Having a different skin color Having a different skin color Speaking with an accent Speaking with an accent Fears another attack Fears another attack

70 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Emotional Signs (Cont.) Has few or no friends Has few or no friends Feels isolated and lonely Feels isolated and lonely Feels rejected and not liked Feels rejected and not liked Withdraws socially Withdraws socially Has low sense of belonging Has low sense of belonging Feels guilty Feels guilty Feels ashamed Feels ashamed

71 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Emotional Signs (Cont.) Has poor sense of control Has poor sense of control Feels powerless Feels powerless Is irritable Is irritable Has poor concentration Has poor concentration Has flashbacks Has flashbacks Cries easily Cries easily Has angry outbursts Has angry outbursts Displays mood swings Displays mood swings

72 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Emotional Signs (Cont.) Feels trapped Feels trapped Feels sad and depressed Feels sad and depressed Develops: Develops: Emotional numbness Emotional numbness Lethargy Lethargy Decreased self-awareness Decreased self-awareness Talks about hopelessness Talks about hopelessness Talks about committing suicide Talks about committing suicide

73 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) Additional Signs Related to Cyberbullying Distress Is upset after being online Is upset after being online Is upset after seeing text messages Is upset after seeing text messages Stops using the computer, cell phone, or smartphone unexpectedly Stops using the computer, cell phone, or smartphone unexpectedly Shows any of the above physical, behavioral, or emotional signs Shows any of the above physical, behavioral, or emotional signs

74 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) General Effects of Long Term Victimization From 8 years to 18 to 23 years From 8 years to 18 to 23 years Bullies more likely to have antisocial personality disorders, substance abuse disorders, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders Bullies more likely to have antisocial personality disorders, substance abuse disorders, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders

75 Characteristics of Victims (Bully Online, n.d. ; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Rivers, Duncan, & Besag, 2007, 2009; Sampson, 2009; Sourander et al., 2007) General Effects of Long Term Victimization (Cont.) Victims more likely to have anxiety disorders Victims more likely to have anxiety disorders Bully-victims more likely to have antisocial personality disorders and anxiety disorders Bully-victims more likely to have antisocial personality disorders and anxiety disorders

76 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) Aggressive Aggressive Dominant Dominant Prone to losing temper easily Prone to losing temper easily Impulsive Impulsive Anger outbursts Anger outbursts Devious Devious Manipulative Manipulative Spiteful Spiteful Selfish Insincere Insecure Immature Interpersonally less skilled Average popularity

77 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) Slightly below average in intelligence and reading ability Slightly below average in intelligence and reading ability Desire to increase social status: Desire to increase social status: Middle and high school students intent on climbing the school social ladder more prone to harass others than students not intent on climbing the social ladder Middle and high school students intent on climbing the school social ladder more prone to harass others than students not intent on climbing the social ladder Limited empathy for their victims Limited empathy for their victims

78 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) Convincing and compulsive liars Convincing and compulsive liars Tendency to make up anything to fit their needs at that moment Tendency to make up anything to fit their needs at that moment Tendency to deny everything Tendency to deny everything Tendency to show off Tendency to show off Tendency to counter-attack with distorted or fabricated criticisms and allegations Tendency to counter-attack with distorted or fabricated criticisms and allegations Unsuccessful in school Unsuccessful in school

79 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) Come from families where parents: Come from families where parents: Have poor child-rearing techniques Have poor child-rearing techniques Have maladaptive family processes Have maladaptive family processes Have angry and hostile parent-child interactions Have angry and hostile parent-child interactions Use harsh, inconsistent, and lax discipline Use harsh, inconsistent, and lax discipline Have low parental involvement, support, and monitoring (Cont.) Have low parental involvement, support, and monitoring (Cont.)

80 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) Have low parental empathy for child Have low parental empathy for child Have strong parental use of aggression Have strong parental use of aggression Have insecure attachment history with child Have insecure attachment history with child Have poor parent-child communication, where parent: Have poor parent-child communication, where parent: Interrupts child’s communications Interrupts child’s communications Intrudes on child’s communications Intrudes on child’s communications Makes demands on child and overrides child’s decisions Makes demands on child and overrides child’s decisions

81 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) May compensate for poor social skills by engaging in bullying May compensate for poor social skills by engaging in bullying May engage in bullying in order to conceal shame or boost self-esteem May engage in bullying in order to conceal shame or boost self-esteem May lose respect and trust of others May lose respect and trust of others May be seen as mean and unpleasant May be seen as mean and unpleasant

82 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) May engage in other forms of antisocial behavior: May engage in other forms of antisocial behavior: Vandalism Vandalism Shoplifting Shoplifting Truancy Truancy Fighting Fighting Use of drugs and alcohol Use of drugs and alcohol

83 Characteristics of Bullies (Bully Online, n.d. ; Faris & Felmlee, 2011; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009; Sampson, 2009) May have possessions acquired by bullying or shoplifting May have possessions acquired by bullying or shoplifting May continue their aggressive behavior in adulthood and engage in criminal activities such as child abuse or domestic violence May continue their aggressive behavior in adulthood and engage in criminal activities such as child abuse or domestic violence May tend to remain bullies unless they receive counseling May tend to remain bullies unless they receive counseling

84 Characteristics of Victims-Bullies ( Totura, Green, Karver, & Gesten, 2009) Anxiety Anxiety Depression Depression Loneliness Loneliness Low self-esteem Low self-esteem Health problems Health problems Poor peer relationships Poor peer relationships High levels of dominance Aggression Antisocial behavior Be at high risk for maladjustment and rejection by their peers

85 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Sampson, 2009, p. 5) Victim Reluctance to Report Bullying Fearing retaliation Fearing retaliation Feeling shame at not being able to stand up for himself or herself Feeling shame at not being able to stand up for himself or herself Fearing he or she would not be believed Fearing he or she would not be believed Fearing that reporting the incident would worry parents Fearing that reporting the incident would worry parents Having no confidence that anything would change as a result Having no confidence that anything would change as a result

86 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Sampson, 2009, p. 5) Victim Reluctance to Report Bullying (Cont.) Thinking his or her parents’ or teacher’s advice would make the problem worse Thinking his or her parents’ or teacher’s advice would make the problem worse Fearing his or her teacher would tell the bully who told on him or her Fearing his or her teacher would tell the bully who told on him or her Thinking it was worse to be thought of as a snitch Thinking it was worse to be thought of as a snitch

87 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006; Sampson, 2009) Bystander Reluctance to Report Bullying Know that bullying is wrong but... Know that bullying is wrong but... Doesn’t want to raise the bully’s wrath and become the next target Doesn’t want to raise the bully’s wrath and become the next target Doesn’t want to be thought of as a snitch and possibly be rejected by their peers Doesn’t want to be thought of as a snitch and possibly be rejected by their peers May wrongly believe that he or she is not responsible for stopping the bullying (Cont.) May wrongly believe that he or she is not responsible for stopping the bullying (Cont.)

88 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006; Sampson, 2009) Bystander Reluctance to Report Bullying (Cont.) May think that bullying is acceptable May think that bullying is acceptable May even join in with the bully May even join in with the bully May assume that school personnel don’t care enough to stop the bullying or are unable to stop it May assume that school personnel don’t care enough to stop the bullying or are unable to stop it

89 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Rivers, Poteat, Noret, & Ashurst, 2009) Bystanders Not Immune from Effects of Bullying Bystanders may:  Feel unsafe in the classroom and on the playground  Worry about becoming the next victim  Feel powerless to report bullying  Feel guilty for not reporting it

90 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Rivers, Poteat, Noret, & Ashurst, 2009) Bystanders Not Immune from Effects of Bullying Bystanders may (Cont.):  Have heightened anxiety, depression, and/or substance abuse  Become bullies themselves because they think that this is a way to become part of a group

91 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Rivers, Poteat, Noret, & Ashurst, 2009) Bystanders Not Immune from Effects of Bullying Bystanders may (Cont.):  Think that bullying is not so bad because sometimes adults don’t seem to care about who is bullied

92 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Rivers, Poteat, Noret, & Ashurst, 2009) Consequence of Failure to Report Bullying Bullies do not receive any punishment Bullies do not receive any punishment Victims are not protected from future bullying Victims are not protected from future bullying Bullies may be reinforced for their actions Bullies may be reinforced for their actions

93 Reluctance to Report Bullying (Gini, Pozzoli, Borghi, & Franzoni, 2008) Bystanders Who Do Intervene or Report Bullying They may: Be friends with the victim Be friends with the victim Believe that their parents expect them to support victims Believe that their parents expect them to support victims Believe that it is the moral and proper thing to do Believe that it is the moral and proper thing to do Feel that they have the support of their peer group Feel that they have the support of their peer group

94 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Victim can hide from bully when he or she goes home Victim can hide from bully when he or she goes home Cyberbullying Victim has no place to hide from bully and cannot escape

95 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Bullying event is usually a discrete face-to-face act Bullying event is usually a discrete face-to-face act Cyberbullying Bullying event can be in a text message, , or cell phone; continuous or discrete; in the form of nasty postings on a website; continuously accessible; distributed quickly

96 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Audience viewing bullying event is limited Audience viewing bullying event is limited Bully is present and not anonymous Bully is present and not anonymous Cyberbullying Audience viewing bullying event is potentially very large Bully is invisible, may be anonymous, and may encourage bully to engage in behaviors that he or she would not do face-to-face

97 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Bully is usually aware of the consequences of his or her actions and can see the suffering of the victim Bully is usually aware of the consequences of his or her actions and can see the suffering of the victim Cyberbullying Bully is usually unaware of the consequences of his or her actions and can not see the suffering of the victim

98 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Bully has opportunities for empathy and remorse Bully has opportunities for empathy and remorse Cyberbullying Bully has little opportunity for empathy and remorse because remoteness of act may enhance the bully’s moral disengagement from the victim’s plight

99 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Bystanders may intervene Bystanders may intervene Cyberbullying Bystanders have little, if any, opportunity to intervene

100 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Bully may gain status by showing abusive power over others in front of onlookers Bully may gain status by showing abusive power over others in front of onlookers Cyberbullying Bully immediately lacks opportunity to show his or her abusive power (unless bully tells others of his or her actions)

101 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Bully may enjoy seeing others suffer Bully may enjoy seeing others suffer Cyberbullying Bully has little opportunity to see others suffer immediately

102 Contrasts Between Bullying and Cyberbullying (Adapted from Smith & Slonje, 2010) Bullying Victim may report bullying Victim may report bullying Cyberbullying Victim may be reluctant to report bullying because he or she fears that parents will limit his or her access to technology

103 Cyberbullying (Patchin, cited by NPR, 2010 ) Cyberbullies May Engage in Bullying Because They don't see it as that big of a deal They don't see it as that big of a deal They don't really see it as something wrong They don't really see it as something wrong They think it's fun or funny They think it's fun or funny They don't think they're going to get caught because of anonymity They don't think they're going to get caught because of anonymity

104 Case of Cyberbullying (Associated Press, 2011; “Florida Teens Charged,” 2011 ) ESTERO, Fla.—Two teenage girls created a Facebook account in a classmate's name and posted a faked nude photograph of her. ESTERO, Fla.—Two teenage girls created a Facebook account in a classmate's name and posted a faked nude photograph of her. They each face a felony charge of aggravated stalking under a 2008 law passed after a student’s suicide was blamed on bullying. They each face a felony charge of aggravated stalking under a 2008 law passed after a student’s suicide was blamed on bullying.

105 Case of Cyberbullying (Associated Press, 2011; “Florida Teens Charged,” 2011 ) Authorities say the victim was ridiculed by classmates after the pages became active. Authorities say the victim was ridiculed by classmates after the pages became active. However, prosecutors in southwest Florida say won't charge the two teenage girls. However, prosecutors in southwest Florida say won't charge the two teenage girls.

106 Case of Cyberbullying (Associated Press, 2011; “Florida Teens Charged,” 2011 ) Instead, the 15- and 16-year-old girls were referred to a pretrial diversion program at the request of the victim's father. Instead, the 15- and 16-year-old girls were referred to a pretrial diversion program at the request of the victim's father. The teens will have to go before an accountability board that helps youths accused of crimes understand the harm that was done and assigns punishment The teens will have to go before an accountability board that helps youths accused of crimes understand the harm that was done and assigns punishment

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108 Asking The Right Questions About A School’s Bullying Policy Handout 4 provides a list of questions to help you examine a school’s bullying policies Handout 4 provides a list of questions to help you examine a school’s bullying policies An understanding of the teachers’ classroom management techniques is essential An understanding of the teachers’ classroom management techniques is essential

109 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Introduction “Dear Colleague" letter sent to schools, colleges, and universities on Oct. 26, 2010; see Handout 5 “Dear Colleague" letter sent to schools, colleges, and universities on Oct. 26, 2010; see Handout 5 Explains educators' legal obligations to protect students from harrassment Explains educators' legal obligations to protect students from harrassment

110 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Disability Harrassment Defined U.S. Department of Education defines disability harassment as: U.S. Department of Education defines disability harassment as: “intimidation or abusive behavior toward a student based on disability that creates a hostile environment by interfering with or denying a student’s participation in or receipt of benefits, services, or opportunities in the institution’s program” (Cantu & Heumann, 2000) “intimidation or abusive behavior toward a student based on disability that creates a hostile environment by interfering with or denying a student’s participation in or receipt of benefits, services, or opportunities in the institution’s program” (Cantu & Heumann, 2000)

111 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter Bullying fosters a climate of fear and disrespect that can seriously impair the physical and psychological health of its victims Bullying fosters a climate of fear and disrespect that can seriously impair the physical and psychological health of its victims It creates conditions that negatively affect learning It creates conditions that negatively affect learning It undermines ability of students to achieve their full potential It undermines ability of students to achieve their full potential

112 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) Student misconduct that falls under a school’s anti-bullying policy also may trigger responsibilities under: Student misconduct that falls under a school’s anti-bullying policy also may trigger responsibilities under: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex (Cont.) Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex (Cont.)

113 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Title II), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Title II), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability

114 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) A school is responsible for addressing harassment incidents about which it knows or reasonably should have known that occur: A school is responsible for addressing harassment incidents about which it knows or reasonably should have known that occur: In hallways In hallways During academic or physical education classes (Cont.) During academic or physical education classes (Cont.)

115 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) During extracurricular activities During extracurricular activities At recess At recess On a school bus On a school bus Through graffiti in public areas Through graffiti in public areas

116 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) When responding to harassment, a school must take immediate and appropriate action to investigate or otherwise determine what occurred When responding to harassment, a school must take immediate and appropriate action to investigate or otherwise determine what occurred

117 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) If an investigation reveals that discriminatory harassment has occurred, a school must take prompt and effective steps reasonably calculated to: If an investigation reveals that discriminatory harassment has occurred, a school must take prompt and effective steps reasonably calculated to: End the harassment End the harassment Eliminate any hostile environment and its effects Eliminate any hostile environment and its effects Prevent the harassment from recurring Prevent the harassment from recurring

118 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) Appropriate steps to end harassment that do not penalize the student who was harassed may include: Appropriate steps to end harassment that do not penalize the student who was harassed may include: Separating the accused harasser and the victim Separating the accused harasser and the victim Providing counseling for the victim and/or harasser Providing counseling for the victim and/or harasser Taking disciplinary action against the harasser Taking disciplinary action against the harasser

119 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) At a minimum, a school’s responsibilities include: At a minimum, a school’s responsibilities include: Making sure that the victims and their families know how to report any subsequent problems Making sure that the victims and their families know how to report any subsequent problems Conducting follow-up inquiries to see if there have been any new incidents or any instances of retaliation (Cont.) Conducting follow-up inquiries to see if there have been any new incidents or any instances of retaliation (Cont.)

120 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) Responding promptly and appropriately to address continuing or new problems Responding promptly and appropriately to address continuing or new problems When responding to incidents of misconduct, schools should keep in mind the following: When responding to incidents of misconduct, schools should keep in mind the following: The label used to describe an incident (e.g., bullying, hazing, teasing) does not determine how a school is obligated to respond (Cont.) The label used to describe an incident (e.g., bullying, hazing, teasing) does not determine how a school is obligated to respond (Cont.)

121 Letter from U.S. Department of Education (Ali, 2010) Highlights of 2010 Letter (Cont.) It is the nature of the conduct itself must be assessed for civil rights implications It is the nature of the conduct itself must be assessed for civil rights implications A school’s responsibility is to: A school’s responsibility is to: Eliminate the hostile environment created by the harassment Eliminate the hostile environment created by the harassment Address its effects Address its effects Take steps to ensure that harassment does not recur Take steps to ensure that harassment does not recur

122

123 Case Illustration of Disability Harassment Under Section 504 and Title II Several classmates repeatedly called a student with a learning disability “stupid,” “idiot,” and “retard” while in school and on the school bus. Several classmates repeatedly called a student with a learning disability “stupid,” “idiot,” and “retard” while in school and on the school bus. On one occasion, these students tackled him, hit him with a school binder, and threw his personal items into the garbage. On one occasion, these students tackled him, hit him with a school binder, and threw his personal items into the garbage.

124 Case Illustration of Disability Harassment Under Section 504 and Title II The student complained to his teachers and guidance counselor that he was continually being taunted and teased. The student complained to his teachers and guidance counselor that he was continually being taunted and teased. School officials offered him counseling services and a psychiatric evaluation, but did not discipline the offending students. School officials offered him counseling services and a psychiatric evaluation, but did not discipline the offending students. As a result, the harassment continued. As a result, the harassment continued.

125 Case Illustration of Disability Harassment Under Section 504 and Title II The student, who had been performing well academically, became angry, frustrated, and depressed, and often refused to go to school to avoid the harassment. The student, who had been performing well academically, became angry, frustrated, and depressed, and often refused to go to school to avoid the harassment. In this example, the school failed to recognize the misconduct as disability harassment under Section 504 and Title II. In this example, the school failed to recognize the misconduct as disability harassment under Section 504 and Title II.

126 Case Illustration of Disability Harassment Under Section 504 and Title II The harassing conduct included behavior based on the student’s disability, and limited the student’s ability to benefit fully from the school’s education program (e.g., absenteeism). The harassing conduct included behavior based on the student’s disability, and limited the student’s ability to benefit fully from the school’s education program (e.g., absenteeism). In failing to investigate and remedy the misconduct, the school did not comply with its obligations under Section 504 and Title II. In failing to investigate and remedy the misconduct, the school did not comply with its obligations under Section 504 and Title II.

127 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause (Under the 14 th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution) J.L. v. Mohawk Central School District J.L. is a 14-year-old ninth grader J.L. is a 14-year-old ninth grader Attended Mohawk Central School District in New York Attended Mohawk Central School District in New York Brought a civil rights action against the school district (J.L. v. Mohawk Central School District, 2010a) Brought a civil rights action against the school district (J.L. v. Mohawk Central School District, 2010a)

128 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) Complaint alleged that the school district failed to keep him safe from severe, persistent, and violent harassment based on his sexual orientation Complaint alleged that the school district failed to keep him safe from severe, persistent, and violent harassment based on his sexual orientation

129 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) Further, in response to a pattern of sexist and anti-gay harassment against J.L., the school district failed to undertake any meaningful: Further, in response to a pattern of sexist and anti-gay harassment against J.L., the school district failed to undertake any meaningful: Investigative measures Investigative measures Disciplinary measures Disciplinary measures Preventative measures Preventative measures Remedial measures Remedial measures Corrective measures Corrective measures

130 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) Students at the school hurled slurs at him such as: Students at the school hurled slurs at him such as: “pussy” “pussy” “faggot” “faggot” “queer” “queer” “homo” “homo” “bitch ” “bitch ”

131 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) J.L. was also subjected to: J.L. was also subjected to: Destruction of his property Destruction of his property Physical intimidation Physical intimidation Actual violence Actual violence J.L. and family members’ repeatedly notified school district officials about his situation J.L. and family members’ repeatedly notified school district officials about his situation

132 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) They told the school about the marked toll it had taken on J.L.’s academic success and emotional state They told the school about the marked toll it had taken on J.L.’s academic success and emotional state School failed to take any actions School failed to take any actions J.L.’s father called the principal at least 5 times and spoke to him in person at least 10 times about what was happening to J.L. J.L.’s father called the principal at least 5 times and spoke to him in person at least 10 times about what was happening to J.L.

133 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) The principal also said to them “that the harassment would resolve itself and stated something to the effect of ‘boys will be boys’” (p. 5) The principal also said to them “that the harassment would resolve itself and stated something to the effect of ‘boys will be boys’” (p. 5)

134 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) Complaint also alleged that the school district did not follow its own established procedures for handling and investigating reports of bullying or for disciplining students involved in harassing other students Complaint also alleged that the school district did not follow its own established procedures for handling and investigating reports of bullying or for disciplining students involved in harassing other students

135 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) By the end of the academic year, J.L. stopped attending school By the end of the academic year, J.L. stopped attending school J.L. sought relief and compensatory and punitive damages to remedy violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution J.L. sought relief and compensatory and punitive damages to remedy violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution

136 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) In settlement agreement, the school district denied any liability arising from J.L.’s allegations (J.L. v. Mohawk Central School District, 2010b) In settlement agreement, the school district denied any liability arising from J.L.’s allegations (J.L. v. Mohawk Central School District, 2010b)

137 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) School district did agree to several stipulations, including the following: School district did agree to several stipulations, including the following: To give J.L. $50, To give J.L. $50, To reimburse J.L. for counseling services (Cont.) To reimburse J.L. for counseling services (Cont.)

138 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) To retain a mutually agreed upon expert to review of the District’s policies and practices concerning the prohibition and prevention of discrimination and harassment in the District (Cont.) To retain a mutually agreed upon expert to review of the District’s policies and practices concerning the prohibition and prevention of discrimination and harassment in the District (Cont.)

139 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) To develop. and implement a comprehensive dissemination plan for the policies and procedures regarding the prohibition and prevention of discrimination and harassment in the school district (Cont.) To develop. and implement a comprehensive dissemination plan for the policies and procedures regarding the prohibition and prevention of discrimination and harassment in the school district (Cont.)

140 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) To annually disseminate the information to all school district staff, parents and guardians, and students (Cont.) To annually disseminate the information to all school district staff, parents and guardians, and students (Cont.)

141 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) To retain the services of an expert in the area of the prevention of sex- and sexual orientation-based harassment in schools who will conduct annual training sessions (Cont.) To retain the services of an expert in the area of the prevention of sex- and sexual orientation-based harassment in schools who will conduct annual training sessions (Cont.)

142 Case Illustration Under the Equal Protection Clause J.L. v. Mohawk Central Sch. Dist. (Cont.) To maintain records for at least 5 years of its investigation of and response to each incident of alleged harassment or discrimination perpetrated against any student To maintain records for at least 5 years of its investigation of and response to each incident of alleged harassment or discrimination perpetrated against any student To provide annual reports regarding its compliance with this agreement To provide annual reports regarding its compliance with this agreement

143 Students with Special Needs Overview “Students with medical, cognitive, learning, or psychological disabilities frequently draw the attention of bullies because they have readily identifiable features that differentiate them from their peers” (Dempsey & Storch, 2010, p. 128) “Students with medical, cognitive, learning, or psychological disabilities frequently draw the attention of bullies because they have readily identifiable features that differentiate them from their peers” (Dempsey & Storch, 2010, p. 128) Students with special needs are at increased risk of victimization (Twemlow, 2008; Twyman et al., 2010) Students with special needs are at increased risk of victimization (Twemlow, 2008; Twyman et al., 2010)

144 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Being a member of a special needs group means being in a situationally less powerful group Being a member of a special needs group means being in a situationally less powerful group Features that make students with special needs targets for harassment include: Features that make students with special needs targets for harassment include: Physical deformities Physical deformities Walking problems, including walking slower and unsteady gait Walking problems, including walking slower and unsteady gait Reading problems (Cont.) Reading problems (Cont.)

145 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Speech and communication problems (including stuttering) Speech and communication problems (including stuttering) Hyperactivity Hyperactivity Ritualistic behaviors Ritualistic behaviors Use of assistive devices Use of assistive devices

146 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) These features may be viewed as signs of weakness These features may be viewed as signs of weakness Students with special needs may: Students with special needs may: Have a limited social network and fewer friends than other students Have a limited social network and fewer friends than other students Have more language deficits than others Have more language deficits than others Have language deficits that limit their ability to describe their victimization (Cont.) Have language deficits that limit their ability to describe their victimization (Cont.)

147 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Not be able to distinguish good-natured kidding from bullying Not be able to distinguish good-natured kidding from bullying Be too literal or unable to understand nuances and jokes, which they may interpret as bullying (Cont.) Be too literal or unable to understand nuances and jokes, which they may interpret as bullying (Cont.)

148 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Act as bullies if they Act as bullies if they Want to protect themselves from further victimization Want to protect themselves from further victimization Learn bullying behavior in other social settings, such as with peers or in family Learn bullying behavior in other social settings, such as with peers or in family Feel extremely anxious (Cont.) Feel extremely anxious (Cont.)

149 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Cannot size up a situation realistically Cannot size up a situation realistically Have limited frustration tolerance Have limited frustration tolerance Feel pushed too far Feel pushed too far Exhaust their resources Exhaust their resources Fail to realize that their “playful” behavior can hurt others Fail to realize that their “playful” behavior can hurt others

150 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Children with special needs who are bullied may have the same symptoms as other victims who do not have special needs Children with special needs who are bullied may have the same symptoms as other victims who do not have special needs

151 Students with Special Needs Overview (Cont.) Bullying may have an additive effect by hampering a special-needs student’s academic performance by Bullying may have an additive effect by hampering a special-needs student’s academic performance by Increasing anxiety about academic performance Increasing anxiety about academic performance Limiting motivation to achieve Limiting motivation to achieve Leading to a failure to use assistive technology Leading to a failure to use assistive technology Lowering student’s grades Lowering student’s grades

152 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Sample: Middle-School Students: N = 7,331 Middle-School Students: N = 7,331 High-School Students: N = 14, 315 High-School Students: N = 14, 315

153 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Results for Bully Scale Students without disabilities Students with disabilities in inclusive settings Students with disabilities in self-contained settings 10.2%15.6%20.9%

154 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Results for Victim Scale Students without disabilities Students with disabilities in inclusive settings Students with disabilities in self-contained settings 12.0%18.5%21.7%

155 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Conclusions: 1. Students with disabilities are victimized more often than students enrolled in general education 2. Students with disabilities display more bullying behaviors than students enrolled in general education

156 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Conclusions (Cont.): 3. Students in self-contained classrooms are victimized more often than students enrolled in inclusive settings 4. Students in self-contained classrooms display more bullying behaviors than students enrolled in inclusive settings

157 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Conclusions (Cont.): 5. Students in middle school in self- contained classrooms had higher rates of victimization than students in students in inclusive settings 6. Students in high-school in self-contained classrooms had similar rates of victimization than students in students in inclusive settings

158 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Commentary by Rose et al. on Their Findings Is the bullying behavior of students with disabilities a reaction to prolonged victimization? Is the bullying behavior of students with disabilities a reaction to prolonged victimization? Does the restrictiveness of self-contained settings contribute to the bullying behavior of students with disabilities? Does the restrictiveness of self-contained settings contribute to the bullying behavior of students with disabilities?

159 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Commentary by Rose et al. on Their Findings (Cont.) Do self-contained settings limit students with disabilities’ opportunities: Do self-contained settings limit students with disabilities’ opportunities: To practice social skills To practice social skills To have appropriate peer models To have appropriate peer models To have more types of academic opportunities? To have more types of academic opportunities?

160 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Commentary by Rose et al. on Their Findings (Cont.) Does increased bullying behavior of students with disabilities occur because they: Does increased bullying behavior of students with disabilities occur because they: Misread social communications Misread social communications Act too aggressively at inappropriate times? Act too aggressively at inappropriate times?

161 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Commentary by Rose et al. on Their Findings (Cont.) Are students with disabilities bullying behaviors associated with their: Are students with disabilities bullying behaviors associated with their: Disability characteristics Disability characteristics Social integration deficits Social integration deficits Social information processing deficits Social information processing deficits Overall academic deficits? Overall academic deficits?

162 Survey of Bullying and Victimization Rates Among Students in General and Special Education (Rose et al., 2009) Commentary by Rose et al. on Their Findings (Cont.) Are teachers of students with disabilities less aware of bullying behaviors in their students than other teachers? Are teachers of students with disabilities less aware of bullying behaviors in their students than other teachers? Are teachers of students with disabilities less prone to intervene when their students engage in bullying behaviors than teachers of general education students? Are teachers of students with disabilities less prone to intervene when their students engage in bullying behaviors than teachers of general education students?

163 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Students with Chronic Health Conditions or Problems Chronic childhood illnesses may result in changes in physical appearance: Cancer: Cancer: Hair loss Hair loss Changes in weight Changes in weight Facial swelling Facial swelling

164 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Students with Chronic Health Conditions or Problems (Cont.) Cystic fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis: Small stature Small stature Malformation of fingertips (“clubbing”) Malformation of fingertips (“clubbing”)

165 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Students with Chronic Health Conditions or Problems (Cont.) Chronic heart condition: Chronic heart condition: Stunted growth Stunted growth Swelling of toes and fingers Swelling of toes and fingers Irregular skin coloring Irregular skin coloring

166 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Students with Chronic Health Conditions or Problems (Cont.) Craniofacial abnormalities: Craniofacial abnormalities: Facial disfiguration such as cleft palate and facial asymmetry Facial disfiguration such as cleft palate and facial asymmetry

167 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Obesity Overweight is an easily identifiable physical feature that makes students with obesity an easy target of bullying Overweight is an easily identifiable physical feature that makes students with obesity an easy target of bullying Bullies may tease or make fun of overweight children and socially exclude them (referred to as relational bullying) Bullies may tease or make fun of overweight children and socially exclude them (referred to as relational bullying)

168 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Obesity (Cont.) Obesity amplifies feelings of poor self-worth Obesity amplifies feelings of poor self-worth Obesity may increase: Obesity may increase: Social isolation Social isolation Depression Depression Anxiety Anxiety Loneliness Loneliness Aggression Aggression Behavior problems Behavior problems

169 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Severe Asthma Symptoms of severe asthma: Symptoms of severe asthma: Wheezing Wheezing Coughing Coughing Losing one’s breadth easily Losing one’s breadth easily Shortness of breath Shortness of breath

170 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Severe Asthma (Cont.) Symptoms may differentiate children with asthma from their peers Symptoms may differentiate children with asthma from their peers Children with asthma may: Children with asthma may: Need to leave class to take medications Need to leave class to take medications Need to refrain from physical activity Need to refrain from physical activity Have prolonged school absences Have prolonged school absences Feel marginalized from their peers Feel marginalized from their peers

171 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Diabetes and Other Endocrine Disorders Treatment-related behaviors may make students with these disorders stand out from their peers: Treatment-related behaviors may make students with these disorders stand out from their peers: Need a differential diet Need a differential diet Need insulin shots Need insulin shots Need blood-glucose checks Need blood-glucose checks Have physical symptoms, such as short stature and delayed puberty Have physical symptoms, such as short stature and delayed puberty

172 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Co-Occurring Conditions Associated with Chronic Health Conditions Social problems Social problems Withdrawal Withdrawal Depression Depression Anxiety Anxiety Acute stress Acute stress Cognitive deficits Cognitive deficits

173 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Co-Occurring Conditions Associated with Chronic Health Conditions (Cont.) Attention problems Attention problems Poor academic performance because of Poor academic performance because of Frequent absences Frequent absences Difficulty studying Difficulty studying Difficulty doing homework Difficulty doing homework

174 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Learning Disabilities Academic problems may be perceived as a sign of weakness Academic problems may be perceived as a sign of weakness Use of an assistive technology device calls attention to the student, such as audio books, phoenics software, and talking calculator Use of an assistive technology device calls attention to the student, such as audio books, phoenics software, and talking calculator Learning disability may make the student an easy target for bullies Learning disability may make the student an easy target for bullies

175 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Learning Disabilities (Cont.) They may experience: They may experience: Peer neglect (ignoring and isolation) Peer neglect (ignoring and isolation) Rejection Rejection Peer victimization Peer victimization

176 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Psychological and Behavior Disorders Students with psychological and behavioral disorders who receive counseling services and medications from a nurse may be targeted for bullying Students with psychological and behavioral disorders who receive counseling services and medications from a nurse may be targeted for bullying Students with emotional disorders, depression, social withdrawal, and/or who cry and avoid social situations often standout from their peers Students with emotional disorders, depression, social withdrawal, and/or who cry and avoid social situations often standout from their peers

177 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Students may call attention to their atypical behavior and ritualistic behaviors: Students may call attention to their atypical behavior and ritualistic behaviors: Hand washing Hand washing Counting Counting Avoiding people or places for fear of contamination Avoiding people or places for fear of contamination

178 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Cont.) Students may avoid becoming victims of bullying by not engaging in compulsive behaviors at school but engaging in them after school Students may avoid becoming victims of bullying by not engaging in compulsive behaviors at school but engaging in them after school

179 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Cont.) Students may be isolated from their peers because of: Students may be isolated from their peers because of: Chronic somatic pain Chronic somatic pain Headaches Headaches Nausea Nausea Sore throats Sore throats

180 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Cont.) Students may have somatic symptoms resulting from: Students may have somatic symptoms resulting from: Negative peer experiences Negative peer experiences Stress at home Stress at home Difficulty with academic subjects Difficulty with academic subjects Somatic symptoms may make students appear weak to others, especially if they are prone to whining Somatic symptoms may make students appear weak to others, especially if they are prone to whining

181 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD Students with ADHD may be victims, bullies, or bully–victims more often than their peers Students with ADHD may be victims, bullies, or bully–victims more often than their peers Low self-control (i.e., unable to control their behavioral impulses) may underlay bullying behavior in students with ADHD Low self-control (i.e., unable to control their behavioral impulses) may underlay bullying behavior in students with ADHD Medication reduces the incidence of bullying among students with ADHD Medication reduces the incidence of bullying among students with ADHD

182 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD (Cont.) Students with oppositional defiant disorder may be more likely to be victims of bullying than their peers Students with oppositional defiant disorder may be more likely to be victims of bullying than their peers Students with conduct disorder may be more likely to be bully–victims than their peers Students with conduct disorder may be more likely to be bully–victims than their peers

183 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD (Cont.) Possible explanations are that: Possible explanations are that: Difficulties at home or school may generate feelings of anger in students (Cont.) Difficulties at home or school may generate feelings of anger in students (Cont.)

184 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Disruptive Behavior Disorders and ADHD (Cont.) A desire to assert control over their environment coupled with a predisposition for impulsivity may lead them to bully their peers, especially when they feel angry or feel a loss of control A desire to assert control over their environment coupled with a predisposition for impulsivity may lead them to bully their peers, especially when they feel angry or feel a loss of control

185 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Autistic Spectrum Disorder Have difficulty reading social cues Have difficulty reading social cues Have difficulty dealing with the fast pace of social interactions Have difficulty dealing with the fast pace of social interactions Have unusual interests Have unusual interests

186 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Cont.) Have unusual mannerisms and rituals: Have unusual mannerisms and rituals: Humming Humming Swaying Swaying Peculiar hand movements Peculiar hand movements

187 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Cont.) Have difficulty with language: Have difficulty with language: Communicating feelings and ideas Communicating feelings and ideas Understanding figures of speech Understanding figures of speech Understanding colloquialisms Understanding colloquialisms Understanding metaphors Understanding metaphors Understanding sophisticated humor Understanding sophisticated humor

188 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Cont.) May be unable to discriminate manipulation and deceit from good intentions May be unable to discriminate manipulation and deceit from good intentions Are fearful of reporting bullying because of possible retaliation Are fearful of reporting bullying because of possible retaliation

189 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Cont.) Have a tendency to distrust others because of social failures and negative social experiences or sometimes may be overly trusting Have a tendency to distrust others because of social failures and negative social experiences or sometimes may be overly trusting May develop self-isolation and social phobia May develop self-isolation and social phobia May be viewed by others as rude May be viewed by others as rude

190 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Cont.) Have difficulty understanding why they are: Have difficulty understanding why they are: Not liked Not liked Frequently feel rejected Frequently feel rejected

191 Specific Populations at Increased Risk for Becoming Victims of Bullying (Dempsy & Storch, 2010) Parent with a Noticeable Disability Students with parents who have a noticeable disability may be targeted for bullying Students with parents who have a noticeable disability may be targeted for bullying

192 Key Points About Bullying and Students with Special Needs Students are at increased risk to become victims of bullying because of identifiable symptoms and behaviors that bullies perceive as potential weaknesses Students are at increased risk to become victims of bullying because of identifiable symptoms and behaviors that bullies perceive as potential weaknesses Students with health problems or psychopathology are under more stress when bullied than students without disorders Students with health problems or psychopathology are under more stress when bullied than students without disorders

193 Key Points About Bullying and Students with Special Needs Consequences of bullying may be worse for students with preexisting mental or physical health conditions than for those without these conditions Consequences of bullying may be worse for students with preexisting mental or physical health conditions than for those without these conditions

194 Key Points About Bullying and Students with Special Needs Bullying may exacerbate symptoms of psychopathology, including depression and anxiety, particularly when students have: Bullying may exacerbate symptoms of psychopathology, including depression and anxiety, particularly when students have: Limited coping skills Limited coping skills A loss of self-esteem A loss of self-esteem Limited academic success Limited academic success Feelings that they deserve to be bullied Feelings that they deserve to be bullied

195 Key Points About Bullying and Students with Special Needs Bullying may interfere with student’s compliance with treatment regimens Bullying may interfere with student’s compliance with treatment regimens Students may view school as a place to normalize their lives and bullying makes schools: Students may view school as a place to normalize their lives and bullying makes schools: Less desirable Less desirable And even places to be avoided And even places to be avoided

196 Key Points About Bullying and Students with Special Needs Students may amplify those aspects of their condition that make them feel different from others if they are teased or bullied and therefore they may feel further isolated and under more stress Students may amplify those aspects of their condition that make them feel different from others if they are teased or bullied and therefore they may feel further isolated and under more stress Students may interpret the actions of others to be more negative/hostile than intended Students may interpret the actions of others to be more negative/hostile than intended

197 Examples of IEP Goals and Objectives To Help Deal With Bullying (Dubin, 2007; Flanagan & Battaglia, 2010; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Help student recognize: Help student recognize: When a bullying attempt is being made When a bullying attempt is being made What to do when it happens What to do when it happens

198 Examples of IEP Goals and Objectives To Help Deal With Bullying (Dubin, 2007; Flanagan & Battaglia, 2010; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Develop social skills, including: Develop social skills, including: Identifying social norms and sharing Identifying social norms and sharing Taking turns Taking turns Thinking before acting Thinking before acting Practicing social skills with peers Practicing social skills with peers

199 Examples of IEP Goals and Objectives To Help Deal With Bullying (Dubin, 2007; Flanagan & Battaglia, 2010; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Maintain a positive interpersonal relationship with another student for at least 1-month period Maintain a positive interpersonal relationship with another student for at least 1-month period Develop communication skills, including: Develop communication skills, including: Carrying on a two-way conversation Carrying on a two-way conversation Improving speech intelligibility (if needed) Improving speech intelligibility (if needed)

200 Examples of IEP Goals and Objectives To Help Deal With Bullying (Dubin, 2007; Flanagan & Battaglia, 2010; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Develop problem solving skills Develop problem solving skills Develop conflict resolution skills, including how to cope with difficult situations Develop conflict resolution skills, including how to cope with difficult situations Develop emotional regulation skills, including handling anxiety, depression, hyperactivity Develop emotional regulation skills, including handling anxiety, depression, hyperactivity Develop anger management skills Develop anger management skills

201 Examples of IEP Goals and Objectives To Help Deal With Bullying (Dubin, 2007; Flanagan & Battaglia, 2010; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Develop moral reasoning skills Develop moral reasoning skills Develop empathy skills Develop empathy skills

202 Examples of IEP Goals and Objectives To Help Deal With Bullying (Dubin, 2007; Flanagan & Battaglia, 2010; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Practice direct and indirect ways to react, handle, and avoid bullying behavior, including: Practice direct and indirect ways to react, handle, and avoid bullying behavior, including: Developing assertiveness skills Developing assertiveness skills Self-adequacy skills Self-adequacy skills Learning how to say “no” or “stop that” Learning how to say “no” or “stop that” Provide a safe room where the student can go when under severe stress Provide a safe room where the student can go when under severe stress

203 Examples of Supplementary Aids and Services, Program Modifications, And Supports To Help Deal With Bullying (Abilitypath.org, n.d.; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Have school staff monitor: Have school staff monitor: Hallways Hallways Bathrooms Bathrooms Lunchroom Lunchroom Playgrounds Playgrounds Allow student to leave class early to avoid hallway incidents Allow student to leave class early to avoid hallway incidents

204 Examples of Supplementary Aids and Services, Program Modifications, And Supports To Help Deal With Bullying (Abilitypath.org, n.d.; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Have student read stories about handling difficult social situations Have student read stories about handling difficult social situations Help student learn how to avoid difficult situations by role playing Help student learn how to avoid difficult situations by role playing Help student learn how to keep away from a bully or bullies by role playing Help student learn how to keep away from a bully or bullies by role playing Sit student away from a bully Sit student away from a bully

205 Examples of Supplementary Aids and Services, Program Modifications, And Supports To Help Deal With Bullying (Abilitypath.org, n.d.; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Designate a peer buddy Designate a peer buddy Encourage student to form a friendship with a ‘safe’ student Encourage student to form a friendship with a ‘safe’ student Have student go to a safe setting at recess and lunchtime with a peer Have student go to a safe setting at recess and lunchtime with a peer

206 Examples of Supplementary Aids and Services, Program Modifications, And Supports To Help Deal With Bullying (Abilitypath.org, n.d.; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Provide in-service training for school staff and student body to help them understand students’ with special needs, including their: Provide in-service training for school staff and student body to help them understand students’ with special needs, including their: Vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities Needs for assistive technology Needs for assistive technology Needs for a paraprofessional or nurse to assist them (Cont.) Needs for a paraprofessional or nurse to assist them (Cont.)

207 Examples of Supplementary Aids and Services, Program Modifications, And Supports To Help Deal With Bullying (Abilitypath.org, n.d.; National Alliance for Parent Centers, 2003) Needs to be accepted Needs to be accepted Need to be actively participate in student activities within the limits of their abilities Need to be actively participate in student activities within the limits of their abilities Educate all students about school’s policies regarding bullying behavior Educate all students about school’s policies regarding bullying behavior

208 State Laws Against Bullying 45 states have passed anti-bullying laws designed to protect students from being harassed, threatened, or humiliated 45 states have passed anti-bullying laws designed to protect students from being harassed, threatened, or humiliated Other states may be considering similar legislation Other states may be considering similar legislation

209 State Laws Against Bullying Florida’s antibullying law is a good example: (HB 669-School Safety; 123.pdf) and Florida’s antibullying law is a good example: (HB 669-School Safety; 123.pdf) and Massachusett’s antibullying law is another good example: (Chapter 92 of the Acts of 2010; see Handout 6 for highlights of law; sl htm) Massachusett’s antibullying law is another good example: (Chapter 92 of the Acts of 2010; see Handout 6 for highlights of law; sl htm)

210 State Laws Against Bullying Florida’s Law Requires School Districts: To adopt anti-bullying policies that also address cyberbullying To adopt anti-bullying policies that also address cyberbullying To investigate reports of bullying To investigate reports of bullying To provide counseling to bullies and their victims To provide counseling to bullies and their victims To report incidents of bullying to parents and law enforcement To report incidents of bullying to parents and law enforcement

211 State Laws Against Bullying Other Aspects of Florida’s Law: Schools will lose funds if they do not comply with the law Schools will lose funds if they do not comply with the law Schools are advised to take action even if the bullying occurs: Schools are advised to take action even if the bullying occurs: Off campus Off campus Through the Internet Through the Internet Other telecommunications methods Other telecommunications methods

212 State Laws Against Bullying Comment on State Laws Developing a cyberbullying policy is not easy Developing a cyberbullying policy is not easy Schools must balance students’ protection against their free ‑ speech rights Schools must balance students’ protection against their free ‑ speech rights

213 State Laws Against Bullying Comment on State Laws (Cont.) Although schools must protect students while they are in school, they may become involved in off ‑ campus activities when students: Although schools must protect students while they are in school, they may become involved in off ‑ campus activities when students: Post messages that disrupt other students’ learning process at school Post messages that disrupt other students’ learning process at school Cause other students to avoid going to school out of fear Cause other students to avoid going to school out of fear

214 When Does Bullying Violate the Law? Handout 7 shows the following: Acts of bullying at Level One usually do not violate the law Acts of bullying at Level One usually do not violate the law Some acts of bullying at Level Two may be against the law Some acts of bullying at Level Two may be against the law Acts of bullying at Level Three are most likely to be against the law Acts of bullying at Level Three are most likely to be against the law In all cases, courts must determine when bullying and cyberbullying violate the law or fall under the doctrine of free speech In all cases, courts must determine when bullying and cyberbullying violate the law or fall under the doctrine of free speech

215 Other Court Rulings United States v. Drew, 2008 Meier, a 13 ‑ year ‑ old girl from Missouri, hanged herself after being harassed online by Lori Drew, a 49 ‑ year ‑ old middle ‑ aged woman Meier, a 13 ‑ year ‑ old girl from Missouri, hanged herself after being harassed online by Lori Drew, a 49 ‑ year ‑ old middle ‑ aged woman

216 Other Court Rulings United States v. Drew, 2008 (Cont.) After courting Meier by posing as a 16 ‑ year ‑ old boy on a social networking site and gaining her trust, Drew sent insulting, hurtful messages to Meier, who had a history of depression and low self ‑ esteem, at one point telling her that the world would be better without her in it After courting Meier by posing as a 16 ‑ year ‑ old boy on a social networking site and gaining her trust, Drew sent insulting, hurtful messages to Meier, who had a history of depression and low self ‑ esteem, at one point telling her that the world would be better without her in it Drew was prosecuted under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Drew was prosecuted under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

217 Other Court Rulings United States v. Drew, 2008 (Cont.) The judge acquitted Drew because he found that the language in the Act was written so broadly that, were she to be found guilty for creating this fictitious profile, many other relatively innocent Internet users who were in violation of similar terms of agreement, such as people who: (Cont.) The judge acquitted Drew because he found that the language in the Act was written so broadly that, were she to be found guilty for creating this fictitious profile, many other relatively innocent Internet users who were in violation of similar terms of agreement, such as people who: (Cont.)

218 Other Court Rulings United States v. Drew, 2008 (Cont.) Misstated their weight on dating websites Misstated their weight on dating websites Tried to sell Girl Scout cookies through social networking Tried to sell Girl Scout cookies through social networking could be prosecuted for relatively minor offenses could be prosecuted for relatively minor offenses

219 Other Court Rulings United States v. Drew, 2008 (Cont.) Because it was one of the first cases of cyberbullying to be addressed in legal system, it was difficult for the judge to rule based on past precedent Because it was one of the first cases of cyberbullying to be addressed in legal system, it was difficult for the judge to rule based on past precedent

220 Other Court Rulings J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District, 2009 J.C. was suspended from school for two days after posting a recording of several of her friends speaking disparagingly about another student J.C. was suspended from school for two days after posting a recording of several of her friends speaking disparagingly about another student J.C. alleged that her 1st Amendment rights had been violated by the suspension J.C. alleged that her 1st Amendment rights had been violated by the suspension

221 Other Court Rulings J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District, 2009 (Cont.) Recording was made off of school grounds and posted to YouTube from the student’s home Recording was made off of school grounds and posted to YouTube from the student’s home

222 Other Court Rulings J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District, 2009 (Cont.) Judge ruled that schools do not have the authority to discipline students who engage in behavior off of school grounds, such as posting videos on the Internet that insult other students, unless the behavior is reasonably likely to cause a material and substantial disruption of school activities Judge ruled that schools do not have the authority to discipline students who engage in behavior off of school grounds, such as posting videos on the Internet that insult other students, unless the behavior is reasonably likely to cause a material and substantial disruption of school activities

223 Other Court Rulings J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District, 2009 (Cont.) “To allow the school to cast this wide a net and suspend a student simply because another student takes offense to [his or her] speech, without any evidence that such speech caused a substantial disruption of the school's activities, runs afoul [of the law]” (p. 41) “To allow the school to cast this wide a net and suspend a student simply because another student takes offense to [his or her] speech, without any evidence that such speech caused a substantial disruption of the school's activities, runs afoul [of the law]” (p. 41)

224 Other Court Rulings J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District, 2009 (Cont.) “The court cannot uphold school discipline of student speech simply because young persons are unpredictable or immature, or because, in general, teenagers are emotionally fragile and may often fight over hurtful comments” (pp. 49–50) “The court cannot uphold school discipline of student speech simply because young persons are unpredictable or immature, or because, in general, teenagers are emotionally fragile and may often fight over hurtful comments” (pp. 49–50)

225 Other Court Rulings J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District, 2009 (Cont.) This case hinged on the definition of a “substantial disruption” to school activities and highlights the tenuous position that schools may find themselves in when trying to address issues of bullying and cyberbullying This case hinged on the definition of a “substantial disruption” to school activities and highlights the tenuous position that schools may find themselves in when trying to address issues of bullying and cyberbullying

226 Other Court Rulings D.C. et al. v. R.R. et al., nd District Court of Appeal of California ruled that the 1st Amendment does not protect Internet banter among teenagers if a message contains genuine threats of harm 2nd District Court of Appeal of California ruled that the 1st Amendment does not protect Internet banter among teenagers if a message contains genuine threats of harm The threats in this case included the posting of death threats and anti-gay diatribes against D.C. on his website The threats in this case included the posting of death threats and anti-gay diatribes against D.C. on his website

227 Other Court Rulings D.C. et al. v. R.R. et al., 2010 (Cont.) The threatening and insulting messages included saying that: The threatening and insulting messages included saying that: The classmates wanted to “pound your head in with an ice pick” The classmates wanted to “pound your head in with an ice pick” D.C. was “wanted dead or alive” D.C. was “wanted dead or alive”

228 Other Court Rulings D.C. et al. v. R.R. et al., 2010 (Cont.) Appeals court concluded that: Appeals court concluded that: “The students who posted the threats sought to destroy D.C.'s life, threatened to murder him, and wanted to drive him out of Harvard-Westlake and the community in which he lived” (p. 3) “The students who posted the threats sought to destroy D.C.'s life, threatened to murder him, and wanted to drive him out of Harvard-Westlake and the community in which he lived” (p. 3)

229 Other Court Rulings Case of Tyler Clementi, 2010 In September 2010, Tyler Clementi, a freshman at Rutgers University in New Jersey, jumped off of the George Washington Bridge In September 2010, Tyler Clementi, a freshman at Rutgers University in New Jersey, jumped off of the George Washington Bridge His roommate, along with a friend who allowed him to post the video from her room, streamed to the internet a video of Tyler kissing another male His roommate, along with a friend who allowed him to post the video from her room, streamed to the internet a video of Tyler kissing another male

230 Other Court Rulings Case of Tyler Clementi, 2010 (Cont.) Tyler was unaware that his roommate had placed a video camera in his room and was filming the interaction Tyler was unaware that his roommate had placed a video camera in his room and was filming the interaction Tyler’s roommate and the roommate’s friend were charged with invasion of privacy and possibly a hate crime Tyler’s roommate and the roommate’s friend were charged with invasion of privacy and possibly a hate crime

231 Other Court Rulings Case of Tyler Clementi, 2010 (Cont.) Both students withdrew from the university shortly after Tyler’s suicide Both students withdrew from the university shortly after Tyler’s suicide In December 2010, Tyler’s family filed legal notice that they may sue Rutgers University In December 2010, Tyler’s family filed legal notice that they may sue Rutgers University

232 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006; Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools, U.S. Department of Education, n.d., p. 38) Programs should include: Recognizing that bullying is difficult to change because of its complex nature Recognizing that bullying is difficult to change because of its complex nature Assessing scope of the bullying problem and analyzing core causes Assessing scope of the bullying problem and analyzing core causes

233 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Designing comprehensive intervention strategies involving students, teachers, administrators, families, and communities Designing comprehensive intervention strategies involving students, teachers, administrators, families, and communities Building bullying prevention programs based on principles of science and supported by scientifically valid evidence of effectiveness Building bullying prevention programs based on principles of science and supported by scientifically valid evidence of effectiveness

234 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Making sure that the programs are: Making sure that the programs are: Replicable Replicable Accountable Accountable Open to modification based on research evidence Open to modification based on research evidence Ensuring that the policies are developmentally appropriate Ensuring that the policies are developmentally appropriate

235 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Applying school discipline rules, policies, and sanctions fairly and consistently Applying school discipline rules, policies, and sanctions fairly and consistently Implementing the policies at all levels, including primary, junior, intermediate, and high school Implementing the policies at all levels, including primary, junior, intermediate, and high school

236 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Motivating students, teachers, administrators, and parents to believe that: Motivating students, teachers, administrators, and parents to believe that: Bullying is a serious and preventable problem Bullying is a serious and preventable problem The specific program selected will work The specific program selected will work That they themselves can make a difference That they themselves can make a difference

237 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Presenting strategies that are clear, relevant, and comprehensible to both teachers and students Presenting strategies that are clear, relevant, and comprehensible to both teachers and students

238 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Promoting: Promoting: A common understanding of the problem A common understanding of the problem Ways to address the problem Ways to address the problem Having clear roles and responsibilities Having clear roles and responsibilities Having ongoing communication among members of the school and community Having ongoing communication among members of the school and community

239 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Providing a systematic method, curricular materials, and useful tools for: Providing a systematic method, curricular materials, and useful tools for: Staff training Staff training Program delivery Program delivery Program maintenance Program maintenance

240 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Changing habitual patterns of thought and action that support bullying by helping students: Changing habitual patterns of thought and action that support bullying by helping students: Develop new skills Develop new skills Challenge old beliefs Challenge old beliefs Replace impulsive with reflective decision-making Replace impulsive with reflective decision-making

241 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Helping students apply and adapt new habits of thought and action—both during training sessions and at other times— through: Helping students apply and adapt new habits of thought and action—both during training sessions and at other times— through: Modeling Modeling Role-playing Role-playing Giving corrective feedback to self and others Giving corrective feedback to self and others

242 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Calling upon all members of the school and community to redefine their shared commitment and responsibility toward bullying Calling upon all members of the school and community to redefine their shared commitment and responsibility toward bullying

243 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Empowering students, teachers, administrators, and parents to broaden and sustain prevention activities by: Empowering students, teachers, administrators, and parents to broaden and sustain prevention activities by: Developing support systems at all levels Developing support systems at all levels Turning limited interventions into a broad schoolwide philosophy Turning limited interventions into a broad schoolwide philosophy

244 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Overall Philosophy in Designing Anti- Bullying Programs (Cont.) Partnering with law enforcement and mental health agencies to identify and address cases of serious bullying Partnering with law enforcement and mental health agencies to identify and address cases of serious bullying Assessing the effectiveness of the intervention program and making adjustments as needed Assessing the effectiveness of the intervention program and making adjustments as needed

245 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Rivas, n.d. ; Sampson, 2009; Swearer, Grills, Haye, & Cary, 2004; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009) Techniques should include: Enlisting the school principal’s commitment and involvement Enlisting the school principal’s commitment and involvement Using a multifaceted, comprehensive approach including Using a multifaceted, comprehensive approach including Establishing a schoolwide policy that addresses bullying (Cont.) Establishing a schoolwide policy that addresses bullying (Cont.)

246 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Providing guidelines on specific actions to take if bullying occurs for: Providing guidelines on specific actions to take if bullying occurs for: Teachers Teachers Administrators Administrators Other staff members Other staff members Students Students

247 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Using focus groups to discuss ways: Using focus groups to discuss ways: To prevent bullying To prevent bullying To change normative beliefs that support bullying To change normative beliefs that support bullying To enhance social-emotional skills To enhance social-emotional skills Educating parents about bullying (Cont.) Educating parents about bullying (Cont.)

248 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Meeting with parents of victims and bullies Meeting with parents of victims and bullies Providing victims with immediate support services Providing victims with immediate support services Employing appropriate interventions including: Employing appropriate interventions including: Anxiety management Anxiety management Social-skills training Social-skills training

249 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Employing appropriate interventions including: Employing appropriate interventions including: Coping-skills training Coping-skills training Pleasant-events scheduling Pleasant-events scheduling Assertiveness training Assertiveness training Problem solving Problem solving Peer cooperativeness training Peer cooperativeness training Mediation training Mediation training

250 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Using combinations of several approaches if appropriate Using combinations of several approaches if appropriate Developing a comprehensive reporting system to track bullying including: Developing a comprehensive reporting system to track bullying including: Recording prevalence, location, and kind of bullying activities (Cont.) Recording prevalence, location, and kind of bullying activities (Cont.)

251 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Recording demographic information about bully (or bullies) and victim (or victims) including: name, age, grade, sex, ethnicity, SES, and type of disability Recording demographic information about bully (or bullies) and victim (or victims) including: name, age, grade, sex, ethnicity, SES, and type of disability Recording names of bystanders (Cont.) Recording names of bystanders (Cont.)

252 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Recording actions taken by the staff after each incident of bullying Recording actions taken by the staff after each incident of bullying Obtaining relevant reports from students, teachers, staff, and parents about the bullying incident Obtaining relevant reports from students, teachers, staff, and parents about the bullying incident

253 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Encouraging students to be helpful to classmates who have been bullied (Cont.) Encouraging students to be helpful to classmates who have been bullied (Cont.)

254 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Developing tailored strategies to counter bullying in specific school hot spots by using: Developing tailored strategies to counter bullying in specific school hot spots by using: Environmental redesign Environmental redesign Increased supervision (e.g., by teachers, other staff members, parents, volunteers) Increased supervision (e.g., by teachers, other staff members, parents, volunteers) Technological monitoring equipment Technological monitoring equipment

255 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Conducting post-intervention surveys to assess the effectiveness of programs implemented to prevent school bullying Conducting post-intervention surveys to assess the effectiveness of programs implemented to prevent school bullying

256 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Increasing student reporting of bullying: Increasing student reporting of bullying: Having clear schoolwide and classroom rules about bullying and the consequences for bullying Having clear schoolwide and classroom rules about bullying and the consequences for bullying Conducting class-led discussions about why reporting is heroic behavior, not tattling Conducting class-led discussions about why reporting is heroic behavior, not tattling Setting up a bully hot line (Cont.) Setting up a bully hot line (Cont.)

257 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Placing a “bully box” in which students can drop a note to alert teachers and administrators about students who are bullies Placing a “bully box” in which students can drop a note to alert teachers and administrators about students who are bullies Establishing an online reporting system, such as an address for reporting incidents of bullying (Cont.) Establishing an online reporting system, such as an address for reporting incidents of bullying (Cont.)

258 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Training adults to take bullying reports by emphasizing the need: Training adults to take bullying reports by emphasizing the need: To listen attentively to the student’s report To listen attentively to the student’s report To take action as needed To take action as needed To provide timely follow-ups To provide timely follow-ups

259 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Creating an environment where students feel safe: Creating an environment where students feel safe: To report bullying To report bullying To know that they will be protected from retaliation by maintaining confidentiality whenever possible To know that they will be protected from retaliation by maintaining confidentiality whenever possible

260 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Making sure that parents understand the importance of reporting bullying so that they will: Making sure that parents understand the importance of reporting bullying so that they will: Encourage their children to come forward Encourage their children to come forward Contact the school themselves if needed Contact the school themselves if needed

261 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Increasing the amount of time students are supervised at recess, lunch breaks, and class changes and using trained volunteers, if needed Increasing the amount of time students are supervised at recess, lunch breaks, and class changes and using trained volunteers, if needed Assigning bullies to a particular location or to particular chores during release times Assigning bullies to a particular location or to particular chores during release times

262 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Posting classroom signs prohibiting bullying and listing the consequences for it: Posting classroom signs prohibiting bullying and listing the consequences for it: Putting would-be bullies on notice of the risks they take if they intend to bully another student (Cont.) Putting would-be bullies on notice of the risks they take if they intend to bully another student (Cont.)

263 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Requiring teachers to consistently enforce the rules and apply age- appropriate penalties if the rules are to have any meaning Requiring teachers to consistently enforce the rules and apply age- appropriate penalties if the rules are to have any meaning Providing all teachers with effective classroom management training including working with students with special needs Providing all teachers with effective classroom management training including working with students with special needs

264 Effective Strategies To Counter Bullying In Schools Specific Techniques (Cont.) Having high-level school administrators inform late-enrolling students about the school’s bullying policy Having high-level school administrators inform late-enrolling students about the school’s bullying policy This removes any excuse that new students might have for bullying other students This removes any excuse that new students might have for bullying other students Stresses the importance the school places on countering bullying Stresses the importance the school places on countering bullying

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266 Components of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (Olweus & Limber, 2010) School-level Components Establish a Bullying Prevention Coordinating Committee (BPCC) Establish a Bullying Prevention Coordinating Committee (BPCC) Conduct trainings for the BPCC and all staff Conduct trainings for the BPCC and all staff Administer the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (Grades 3–12) Administer the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (Grades 3–12) Hold staff discussion group meetings Hold staff discussion group meetings

267 Components of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (Olweus & Limber, 2010) School-level Components (Cont.) Introduce the school rules against bullying Introduce the school rules against bullying Review and refine the school’s supervisory system Review and refine the school’s supervisory system Hold a school-wide kick-off event to launch the program Hold a school-wide kick-off event to launch the program Involve parents Involve parents

268 Components of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (Olweus & Limber, 2010) Classroom-level Components Post and enforce school-wide rules against bullying Post and enforce school-wide rules against bullying Hold regular (weekly) class meetings to discuss bullying and related topics Hold regular (weekly) class meetings to discuss bullying and related topics Hold class-level meetings with students’ parents Hold class-level meetings with students’ parents Individual-level components Individual-level components

269 Components of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (Olweus & Limber, 2010) Classroom-level Components (Cont.) Supervise students’ activities Supervise students’ activities Ensure that all staff intervene on the spot when bullying is observed Ensure that all staff intervene on the spot when bullying is observed Meet with students involved in bullying (separately for those who are bullied and who bully) Meet with students involved in bullying (separately for those who are bullied and who bully) Meet with parents of involved students Meet with parents of involved students Develop individual intervention plans for involved students, as needed Develop individual intervention plans for involved students, as needed

270 Components of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (Olweus & Limber, 2010) Community-level Components (Cont.) Involve community members on the Bullying Prevention Coordinating Committee Involve community members on the Bullying Prevention Coordinating Committee Develop school–community partnerships to support the school’s program Develop school–community partnerships to support the school’s program Help to spread antibullying messages and principles of best practice in the community Help to spread antibullying messages and principles of best practice in the community

271 Effectiveness of School Bullying Intervention Programs (Merrell et al., 2008) Meta-analytic study of school bullying intervention research from 1980 through 2004 Meta-analytic study of school bullying intervention research from 1980 through ,386 K through 12 students in samples 15,386 K through 12 students in samples Majority of outcomes evidenced no meaningful change, positive or negative Majority of outcomes evidenced no meaningful change, positive or negative Conclusion: School bullying interventions more likely to influence knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions rather than actual bullying behaviors Conclusion: School bullying interventions more likely to influence knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions rather than actual bullying behaviors

272 What Teachers Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Modeling desired attitudes and behaviors Modeling desired attitudes and behaviors Fostering student-shared responsibility for the classroom’s social and physical environment Fostering student-shared responsibility for the classroom’s social and physical environment Establishing and communicating rules and sanctions regarding bullying Establishing and communicating rules and sanctions regarding bullying Applying classroom rules fairly and consistently Applying classroom rules fairly and consistently

273 What Teachers Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Identifying and intervening upon undesirable attitudes and behaviors that could be “gateway behaviors” to bullying and harassment Identifying and intervening upon undesirable attitudes and behaviors that could be “gateway behaviors” to bullying and harassment Managing time and task so that students remain connected and productive and less likely to engage in undesirable behaviors Managing time and task so that students remain connected and productive and less likely to engage in undesirable behaviors Teaching students how to ask for help and how to report cruelty, bullying, and harassment Teaching students how to ask for help and how to report cruelty, bullying, and harassment

274 What Teachers Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Responding to requests of help Responding to requests of help Referring critical bullying cases to appropriate sources of support Referring critical bullying cases to appropriate sources of support

275 What Teachers Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Aligning instructional topics of: Aligning instructional topics of: Courage Courage Reasoning Reasoning Fairness Fairness Justice Justice Responsibility Responsibility Citizenship Citizenship Collaboration Collaboration with appropriate academic/elective content or extracurricular activities with appropriate academic/elective content or extracurricular activities

276 What Teachers Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Promoting personal and social skills development Promoting personal and social skills development Recognizing culture diversity as an influence on: Recognizing culture diversity as an influence on: Relationships Relationships Identity Identity Social issues Social issues

277 What Teachers Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Promoting norms of equity and respect for: Promoting norms of equity and respect for: Ethnic diversity Ethnic diversity Cultural diversity Cultural diversity Physical diversity Physical diversity Mental diversity Mental diversity Social diversity Social diversity

278 What Students Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Victims Needing to know that bullies rarely stop what they are doing on their own Needing to know that bullies rarely stop what they are doing on their own Recognizing that bullies may find more serious ways to hurt others Recognizing that bullies may find more serious ways to hurt others Understanding that if they are a victim, they need to tell a responsible and caring adult at school what is happening and to ask for his or her help Understanding that if they are a victim, they need to tell a responsible and caring adult at school what is happening and to ask for his or her help

279 What Students Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Victims (Cont.) Knowing how to reduce the chances of being harmed by avoiding the times and places they are typically bullied Knowing how to reduce the chances of being harmed by avoiding the times and places they are typically bullied Knowing the safe places to hang out at school Knowing the safe places to hang out at school Knowing the importance of staying close to good friends Knowing the importance of staying close to good friends Understanding the importance to keep reporting bullying until help is provided Understanding the importance to keep reporting bullying until help is provided

280 What Students Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Bullies Recognizing that bullying is hurtful and wrong Recognizing that bullying is hurtful and wrong Asking for help of a caring and responsible adult Asking for help of a caring and responsible adult Agreeing to accept help when it is offered Agreeing to accept help when it is offered Learning respectful ways to express their power when they are with others Learning respectful ways to express their power when they are with others

281 What Students Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Bystanders Taking possible actions: Taking possible actions: Seeking help from other students, teachers, or adults Seeking help from other students, teachers, or adults Stopping the bullying directly or talking to the bully, while recognizing the possible risk, retaliation, or harm Stopping the bullying directly or talking to the bully, while recognizing the possible risk, retaliation, or harm Supporting the victim Supporting the victim Observing the bullying and reporting it (Cont.) Observing the bullying and reporting it (Cont.)

282 What Students Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Bystanders (Cont.) Walking away from the bullying Walking away from the bullying Realizing that they can either be a part of the problem or part of the solution (e.g., participating in the bullying, doing nothing, or doing something constructive) Realizing that they can either be a part of the problem or part of the solution (e.g., participating in the bullying, doing nothing, or doing something constructive) Recognizing that they have the power to help create safe and comfortable schools for themselves and other students Recognizing that they have the power to help create safe and comfortable schools for themselves and other students

283 What Students Can Do About Bullying (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006) Bystanders (Cont.) Understanding that they can use their social power and personal actions to promote respect for all students Understanding that they can use their social power and personal actions to promote respect for all students Knowing that they can carry out anti- bullying activities and campaigns Knowing that they can carry out anti- bullying activities and campaigns Knowing that the most important thing they can do is to report bullying when they see it happening to others Knowing that the most important thing they can do is to report bullying when they see it happening to others

284 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Bullying is a normal part of childhood Bullying is a normal part of childhood Fact Bullying is not a normal part of childhood and most children do not bully

285 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Some children ask to be bullied Some children ask to be bullied Bullying does not cause any serious harm Bullying does not cause any serious harm Fact No child deserves to be bullied Bullying is associated with a range of physical and mental health problems in the victims

286 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Children grow out of bullying Children grow out of bullying Fact Without intervention, children who bully others may continue to use their power negatively through adolescence and into adulthood

287 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Only a small number of children have problems with bullying Only a small number of children have problems with bullying Fact Surveys suggest that bullying is a significant problem among children (10% or more)

288 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Reporting bullying will only make the problem worse Reporting bullying will only make the problem worse Fact Victimized children who tell an adult about being bullied are likely to be less victimized than children who do not report being bullied

289 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Children who are bullied need to stand up and fight back Children who are bullied need to stand up and fight back Fact Children should be encouraged to be assertive, not aggressive, and to inform a trusted adult about what has happened to them

290 Common Misconceptions About Bullying (Horne, Orpinas, Newman-Carlson, & Bartolomucci, 2004; PREVnet, n.d.) Misconception Bullying is only a school problem and does not occur within the family Bullying is only a school problem and does not occur within the family Fact Bullying in not only a school problem, but occurs within families and wherever children gather, although most bullying occurs in school settings

291 Postscript White House Hosted Conference on Bullying Prevention on March 10, 2011 See Handout 9

292 Postscript California Anti-Bullying Law SB 719, October 2003 Bill gets a B from Bully Police Inc. because it misses: Bill gets a B from Bully Police Inc. because it misses: Any definitions of bullying and harassment Any definitions of bullying and harassment Protection against reprisal, retaliation, or false accusation Protection against reprisal, retaliation, or false accusation School district protection against lawsuits upon compliance to policies School district protection against lawsuits upon compliance to policies

293 Postscript resolution-training-aimed-bullying/ resolution-training-aimed-bullying/ resolution-training-aimed-bullying/ Resolution and Updating California’s Anti-Bullying Law Assemblyman Ben Hueso has a state resolution Monday declaring March as: Assemblyman Ben Hueso has a state resolution Monday declaring March as: California School Bullying Awareness Month Repesentative Hueso will also introduce a measure (Assembly Bill 630) on March 25, 2011 Repesentative Hueso will also introduce a measure (Assembly Bill 630) on March 25, 2011

294 Postscript resolution-training-aimed-bullying/ resolution-training-aimed-bullying/ resolution-training-aimed-bullying/ Resolution and Updating California’s Anti-Bullying Law (Cont.) Bill aims to establish programs to help train teachers and administrators to spot signs of bullying and how to respond Bill aims to establish programs to help train teachers and administrators to spot signs of bullying and how to respond

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