Presentation on theme: "The Value and Purpose of Physical Education for Children"— Presentation transcript:
1The Value and Purpose of Physical Education for Children Chapter 1The Value and Purpose of Physical Education for Children
2Group DiscussionWhy do children need physical education at school?Create a list of four things that your elementary program would emphasize in physical educationDid you like physical education when you were in elementary school? Why or why not?
3Key Points Children have an innate desire to move We need to keep that desire alive by offering opportunities for learning, success and enjoyment of physical activity
4The Purpose of Physical Education Guide Youngstersin the Processof BecomingPhysically Active and Healthyfor a Lifetime
5Key PointsIdeally children should be taught by a specialist possessing an extensive background in children’s physical education.National Standards for Physical Education, (NASPE, 2004) define the purpose of a quality program as enabling students to leave school being “physically educated”
6The Six Content Standards for Physical Education from the National Standards for Physical Education A Physically Educated Person:1. Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities2. Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities3. Participates regularly in physical activity
7The Six Content Standards for Physical Education (cont) A Physically Educated Person:4. Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness5. Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings6. Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction
8Benefits of a Quality Physical Education Program Health benefits associated with physical activity and regular participation in physical activitySkill developmentImproved physical fitnessReinforcement of other subjectsSelf-disciplineGoal settingLeadership and cooperationEnhanced self efficacyStress reductionStrengthening peer relationships
9Key PointsConsequences of being physically uneducated include having unpleasant memories of physical education experiences and lacking an understanding about what physical activity isSince most children love movement, the challenge to the physical educator is to keep alive the childhood urge to move so that as individuals move into adult years the desire to be physically active is still present
10Key Points A positive, quality physical education program is: Developmentally appropriateInstructionally appropriateSpecific to the children being served
11Developmentally Appropriate and Instructionally Appropriate Physical Education Recognizes and promotes children’s changing capacity to moveTakes into consideration individual characteristics of children, such as level of development, prior movement experiences, fitness and skill levels, body size and ageInstructionally AppropriateUses best practices that are derived from current research and from experiences teaching childrenProvides a program that maximizes children’s opportunities to learn and to be successful
12Characteristics of a positive, quality program Time - at least 150 minutes a weekClass size - same as the regular classroomSequential, developmental curriculum - scope and sequence of curriculum connected to past and future lessons and children's developmental levelsMinimum of 50% moderate to vigorous Activity (MVPA) during each lessonPractice opportunities - many opportunities to practice skill/concept being taught
13Characteristics of a positive, quality program (cont) High rates of success - for children at all ability levelsPositive developmental environment - children should feel emotionally safe in the physical education environmentTeacher background - ideally, the teacher should have extensive background in content and pedagogy of physical educationRealistic expectations - if time is limited for physical education, teachers set realistic goals to help develop motor skills so that children can successfully participate in physical activities
14Characteristics of a positive, quality program (cont) Adequate equipment and facilities - ideally, a variety of equipment for all children and both indoor an outdoor facilitiesEnjoyable - learning should be fun!Emphasize the psychomotor domain, but also focus on the cognitive and affective domains
15Vignette #1The PE teacher, Ms. Jones, likes basketball and is the assistant coach at the middle school. She spends 6 weeks each year on a basketball unit with the 4th and 5th grade students. The unit includes skill drills the first week and then teams playing 5 on 5, with a round robin tournament the last week.
16Vignette #2Mr. Rader, a third grade classroom teacher, is responsible for providing physical education to his students at least 2 times a week. One day he plans 30 minutes of simple games, and the other day he gives ‘free time’ with a variety of manipulative equipment, such as balls, hoops, ropes, etc.
17Vignette #3Two classroom teachers ask the physical education teacher to take both their classes at the same time on Fridays for 4 weeks so that they can have a planning time together. The classes would be in a small multipurpose room. Mr. Smith doesn’t know what they are planning together, only that it is an interdisciplinary school project.
18Small Group WorkWrite a mission statement for your elementary physical education programPresent your mission statement to the class
20Key Points Skill Themes are: Fundamental movements, later modified into more specialized patterns upon which more complex activities/sports are built.The Skill Theme Approach is a way of teaching physicaleducation that:Is organized around Skill Themes and Movement concepts
21Key Points Important motor development principles: Children develop at different ratesAge does not predict motor abilityChildren develop motor skills naturally through playSkillfulness is a result of practice, not gender or heredity
23Key Points Curriculum Diamond Suggests the development of a broad foundation of movement forms at the elementary and middle school levelfocus on proficiency in few movements at high school
24Key Points Elementary Level Focus: To help children acquire the fundamental competencies:First focus on developing movement conceptsSpace awarenessEffortRelationshipsThen focus on developing skill themesManipulative skillsLocomotor skillsNon-manipulative skills
25Active Learning TimeGenerate a list of sports/physical activities taught in physical education.Choose four different sports/activitiesList all of the psychomotor skills necessary to successfully participateWhat psychomotor skills do these sports/activities have in common?
26Key Points Skill theme approach Emphasizes helping children develop skill competencies that enable them to participate successfully with enjoyment.Provides different tasks based on children’s abilityFour skill levels: precontrol, control, utilization, proficiencyFocuses on children learning the critical elements of a skill.
27Key Points Additional Skill Theme Approach qualities: Emphasizes both cognitive and affective domains by helping children understand the “how’s” and “why’s” of movement and giving them opportunities to feel good about themselves and othersSkill themes may be revisited throughout the school year many times
28Comparing the Skill Theme Approach with the Traditional Method of Teaching Physical Education Scope and sequence is designed to teach skills in preset “units” of three weeks, six weeks, etcScope and sequence is designed to reflect the needs and interests of the students over a period of years (i.e.,K-5)Primary emphasis on providing learning experiences that are based on the child’s age or gradePrimary emphasis on providing learning experiences that are appropriate for the developmental level of the individual childPrimary emphasis on teaching children games, dances, and gymnastics without regard to skill acquisition.Primary emphasis on fundamental motor skill acquisition and competencyTraditional MethodSkill Theme Approach
29Practical Application Using the skill theme of dribbling a ball, how could a teacher adjust the activity to be ‘developmentally appropriate’ for children of varying ability levels?