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Neuron & Nervous System

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Presentation on theme: "Neuron & Nervous System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Neuron & Nervous System

2 image from

3 The Stimulus-Response Pathway

4 "Como hay talentos por el estudio, hay tontos entontecidos por desuso."

5 Give 3 examples of Receptors:

6 Give 3 examples of Recpetors:

7 Las ideas no duran mucho. Hay que hacer algo con ellas.

8 Give 3 examples of Effectors : (Effectors are parts of the body that produce a response) 10/05/24/neuronasneurons/

9 Give 3 examples of Effectors : (Effectors are parts of the body that produce a response) ● a muscle contracting to move an arm ● a muscle squeezing saliva from the salivary gland ● a gland releasing a hormone into the blood

10 Lo peor no es cometer un error, sino tratar de justificarlo, en vez de aprovecharlo como aviso providencial de nuestra ligereza o ignorancia.

11 Nervous System

12 ● The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. ● The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves.

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14 C.N.S. ● Cerebrum ● Cerebellum ● Brain stem

15 Name the two structures which make up the central nervous system.

16 ● The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.

17 Nerves ● Nerves → Collections of neurons that are joined together by connective tissue.

18 The Neuron ● The basic functional unit of the nervous system.

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20 (Petilla de Aragón, Navarra, 1 de mayo de Madrid, 17 de octubre de 1934) Santiago Ramón y Cajal (Petilla de Aragón,1 May 1852 – Madrid 18 October 1934) Spanish pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate in 1906 Education atEducation at: Universidad de Zaragoza (1873Universidad de Zaragoza

21 Function: ● Send impulses to and from the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System and the effectors (muscles/glands)

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23 ● Dendrite → Fine hair-like extensions on the end of a neuron. ● Function: receive incoming stimuli. ● Cell Body or Soma → The control center of the neuron. ● Function: Directs impulses from the dendrites to the axon. ● Nucleus → Control center of the Soma. ● Function: Tells the soma what to do. ● Axon→ Pathway for the nerve impulse (electrical message) from the soma to the opposite end of the neuron. ● Myelin Sheath → An insulating layer around an axon, It is made up of Schwann cells. ● Nodes of Ranvier → Gaps between schwann cells. ● Function: Saltatory Conduction (Situation where speed of an impulse is greatly increased by the message ‘jumping’ the gaps in an axon).

24 Types of Neurons

25 ● (a) The nerve fibres which carry impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system are called …..….. fibres. ● (b) The nerve fibres which carry impulses from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles are called …..….. fibres.

26 sensory ● (a) The nerve fibres which carry impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system are called …..…..... fibres. ● (b) The nerve fibres which carry impulses from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles are called ……..….. fibres.

27 sensory ● (a) The nerve fibres which carry impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system are called …..…..... fibres. ● (b) The nerve fibres which carry impulses from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles are called ……..….. fibres. motor

28 Complete the passage below, selecting the appropriate words from the list below. sensory, nerve fibre, cell body, impulses, dendrons, dendrites, motor, contact, axons, synapses, cytoplasm A neurone (nerve cell) consists of a ….. A ….. containing a nucleus surrounded by ….. B ….. Branching filaments, called ….. C ….., extend from the cell surface and make ….. D ….., with other neurones. In ….. E ….. and ….. F ….. neurones, one of the filaments is very long and is called …… G …..

29 Complete the passage below, selecting the appropriate words from the list below. sensory, nerve fibre, cell body, impulses, dendrons, dendrites, motor, contact, axons, synapses, cytoplasm A neurone consists of a cell body (A) containing a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm (B). Branching filaments, called dendrites (C), extend from the cell surface and make synapses (D) with other neurones. In sensory (E) and motor (F) neurones, one of the filaments is very long and is called a nerve fibre (G).

30 Transmission of signals

31 The Synapse ● The junction between two neurons is called a ________________, it forms a physical ______ between the pre-synaptic and post- synaptic neurons ● An action potential (__________signal) cannot cross the synaptic gap, so it triggers the release of chemicals (______________) to continue the signal

32 The Synapse ● The junction between two neurons is called a Synapse it forms a physical Gap between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons ● An action potential (Electrical signal) cannot cross the synaptic gap, so it triggers the release of chemicals (Neurotransmitters) to continue the signal

33 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to another cell across a synapse.

34 Overview of Synaptic Transfer

35 Nada me inspira más veneración y asombro que un anciano que sabe cambiar de opinión.

36 Reflex arc

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38 Give 3 examples of reflex actions.

39 ● change in size of the pupil of the eye in response to light intensity, ● blinking in response to foreign particles on the cornea, ● coughing or sneezing in response to irritation of the nasal passages and trachea or bronchi, ● knee jerk in response to a blow on the tendon of the leg extensor muscle, ● rapid removal of the hand from a hot or sharp object (any three)

40 De todas las reacciones posibles ante una injuria, la más hábil y económica es el silencio.

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42 Which one is a …? motor neuron interneuron sensory neuron a)b)C)

43 brain Spinal Cord Cerebellum Cerebrum Medulla Oblongata Consists of: Brain and Spinal Cord

44 ● BBC - GCSE Bitesize: The nervous system BBC - GCSE Bitesize: The nervous system ● BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Receptors and effectors BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Receptors and effectors


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