4Identification of the density of nerve endings – AIM: To investigate the sensitivity of different areas of the skin.Method:Working in pairs, one student looks in a different direction, while another student touches them on the back of the hand with either one or two pieces of blunt pencil about 1 cm apart.The blindfolded student has to say whether it was one point or two points that touched them.Place a cross on the hand for each point felt.Results:Map the density of sensory receptors by drawing it into your book.Conclusion:Are the receptors in groups?Or randomly placed?What can you say about the density of the receptors identified?
5NERVE FIBRES Clip slide 04, last slide draw neurones Nerve fibres are bundles of nerve cells (neurones) that pass on electrical signals (impulses) to the brain.From the brain, nerve fibres send impulses to effectors (muscles/glands).
6What is happening? Your body’s sense organs contain receptors. Receptors (sensory neurons) detect changes in the environment called stimuliand send messages (nerve impulses) along nerves to the brain and spinal cord (CNS).
7Lets consider the reflex response! The Reflex ArcReflexes are an involuntary response to a stimulus, they exist because throughout our evolution we have needed to respond to a variety of different situations quickly...otherwise we die!!!Lets consider the reflex response!
8The Reflex Arc Response Clip slide 07,12, 14Stimulus picked up by Receptor cells in finger (skin)Impulse passed on to sensory neuroneSensory neurone passes impulse to spinal cordSpinal cord sorts out (relays) a response and sends a message to motor neuroneMotor neurone tells the muscle (effector) to contractThe finger moves away from the stimulus
9Put these is the correct order to annotate your diagram! Fruit Groups!Spinal cord or brain relays the messageImpulse carried along nerve cell (Sensory neurone) to spinal cordStimulus (change) picked up by receptorEffector organ brings about a responseImpulse carried along nerve cell (motor neurone) to effector organPut these is the correct order to annotate your diagram!
13Reflex in the fingerStimulus picked up by Receptor cells in finger (skin)Impulse passed on to sensory neuroneSensory neurone passes impulse to spinal cordSpinal cord sorts out response and send message to motor neuroneMotor neurone tells the finger to pull away
14Reflex in the leg Stimulus picked up by Receptor cells in leg (skin) Impulse passed on to sensory neuroneSensory neurone passes impulse to spinal cordSpinal cord sorts out response and send message to motor neuroneMotor neurone tells the leg to move
15EFFECTORSAn effector is any part of the body that produces the response.Here are some examples of effectors:a muscle contracting to move the arma muscle squeezing saliva from the salivary glanda gland releasing a hormone into the blood
16What would happen if….You were cooking and you put your hand on to a hot pan.You task as a group:-how would detect this?-what process would your nervous system go through?-how would you avoid it!Fill in the boxes below!StimulusReceptorEffectorResponse
17NEURONES There are three types of neurones Sensory neurone – carries impulses from the receptors to the spinal cord.Relay Neurone – carries impulses to and from the spinal cord and the brainMotor Neurone – carries impulses from the brain to the effectorRelay neurone
182 TYPES OF OF NERVE PATHWAY… SENSORY NEURONETakes impulses from the sense organ to the relay neurone.RELAY NEURONETakes impulses to the brain and from the brain.MOTOR NEURONETakes impulses from the relay neurone to the effector.BRAINReceives impulses from the spinal cord and sends out new impulses.SENSE ORGAN/ RECEPTORSenses stimuli from our surroundings.EFFECTORThe muscle that receives the impulse from motor neurone.SPINAL CORDWhere the relay neurones are found.VOLUNTARYINVOLUNTARY
19Reflex Arc Automatic responses to stimuli are called reflex actions. A reflex response is rapid and its function is protectionThe spinal cord mediates reflex responses to some sensory impulses directly ie. without going to the brain. This makes it much faster.The messages pass through a reflex arc:
21What’s happening when we detect a stimulus which causes a reflex? Each reflex action takes the follows the pathway:stimulus receptor sensory neurone relay neurone motor neurone synapses effector response
22Synapses An electrical impulse travels along an axon. This triggers the nerve-ending of a neuron to release chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.These chemicals diffuse across the synapse (the gap) and bind with receptor molecules on the membrane of the next neuron.The receptor molecules on the second neuron bind only to the specific chemicals released from the first neuron. This stimulates the second neuron to transmit the electrical impulse.
23Effectors Effectors are muscles or glands which carry out a response. A muscle responds by contracting.A gland responds by secreting chemical substances.
24EffectorsFatty deposits which stop the electrical impulse from leaking away. The gaps between allow the impulse to “jump” which means it moves along the neuron rapidly.The end of the neuron is branched so that they can communicate with many other neurons (or effector cells!)
25Copy the diagram below of a reflex arc into your book. Label:a sensory neuronea motor neuronean intermediate (relay) neuronean axona synapsethe spinal corda sense organ/receptorand an effector musclePut arrows on the neurones to show the direction of the impulses.
31AnswersStudent BookQ8 Get smaller • Q9 To control the amount of light entering the eye • Q10 Knee jerk, dropping a hot plate • Q11 Electrical impulses • Q12 Because they are not delayed by the brain thinking about them • Q13 Axon • Q14 It can make decisions such as examining the fingers and using first aid • Q15 They are very long and thin to carry impulses directly to body parts. They have an insulatory sheath to stop electrical impulses spreading to other neurones. They have branching dendrites to make contact with other neurones or act as receptors • Q17 Description to include receptor, sensory neurone, central nervous system, relay neurone, motor neurone, effector.Fig 8 as electrical impulses • Fig 9 no • Fig 10 away from the cell body • Fig 12 allows impulses to pass along different pathways.
32AnswersWorksheetQ1a quick, does not involve thought • Q1b along (sensory) neurones • Q1c brain and spinal cord • Q2a dendron/ cytoplasm/axon/muscle/fatty sheath/nucleus • Q2b does not involve the brain and involves conscious thought. Also quicker • Q2c skin/sensory/relay/motor/muscle • Q3a insulates the neurone and speeds up the impulse • Q3b transmitter molecules are released when an impulse reaches the synapse/diffuse across the gap/bind with receptors on next neurone/cause an impulse to pass along this neurone.
33Learning outcomesName and locate the main parts of the nervous system.Describe the nerve impulse as an electrical signal.Describe the difference between reflex actions and voluntary actions.Describe a reflex arc.Name and locate the parts of a motor neurone and explain how neurones are adapted to their function.Describe a synapse and explain how it works.
34Reflexes always involve the spinal cord. True or False?Reflexes always involve the spinal cord.Reflexes always involve the spinal cord.
35Reflexes never involve the brain. Reflexes never involve the brain. True or False?Reflexes never involve the brain.Reflexes never involve the brain.
36Reflexes allow us to respond quickly and they protect us from harm. True or False?Reflexes allow us to respond quickly and they protect us from harm.Reflexes allow us to respond quickly and they protect us from harm.
37Reflexes have to be learnt. Reflexes have to be learnt. True or False?Reflexes have to be learnt.Reflexes have to be learnt.
38Reflexes involve receptors, effectors, and neurons. True or False?Reflexes involve receptors, effectors, and neurons.Reflexes involve receptors, effectors, and neurons.
39Reflexes are voluntary. True or False?Reflexes are voluntary.
40Reflexes are voluntary. True or False?Reflexes are voluntary.
41True or False?In a reflex pathway, relay neurones pass impulses from sensory neurones to motor neurones.
42True or False?In a reflex pathway, relay neurones pass impulses from sensory neurones to motor neurones.
43What did we do last lesson?? Reflex ArcWhat did we do last lesson??Central Nervous System, electrical, organs, stimuliSense ____ in the body are eye, tongue, ear, skin and noseSense organs have receptor cells which respond to specific _______Nerve cells relay information (messengers) as ____________ impulsesCNS – ________________make the decisions!