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Animal Nutrition II (Ch. 41) Guest lecturer: Letitia Reichart (Letty)
Keywords Roles of mouth, stomach, sm.&lg. Intestine in digestion Pepsin, pepsinogen Villi, microvilli Cecum Cellulose Cellulase Acid chyme Enzymatic hydrolysis Peristalsis
Mammalian Digestive System Alimentary canal Accessory glands –Salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder Food moved by peristalsis
Mouth (oral cavity) Mechanical –Teeth –Saliva Enzymatic –Salivary amylase – breakdown of starch and glycogen
Throat (pharynx) & Esophagus Throat – junction to esophagus & trachea –Epiglottis Esophagus – uses peristalsis to move food to stomach
Stomach Stores food Secretes gastric juices –Acid chyme Relaxed muscles Contracted muscles Stomach
Digestive mechanisms in stomach Mechanical Chemical Enzymatic Esophagus Stomach Pyloric sphincter Cardiac orifice Liver Gall- bladder Pancreas
Mechanical Mixing and churning –Smooth muscle –Every 20 seconds Esophagus Stomach Pyloric sphincter Cardiac orifice
Chemical Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pH around 2 –Also breaks food down
Enzymatic Pepsin –Breaks down proteins
Chief cells Mucus cells Parietal cells Interior surface of stomach Gastric gland Why doesn’t pepsin digest stomach? Gastric pit
Activation of pepsin Pepsin (active enzyme) Pepsinogen HCl Parietal cellChief cell
Stomach After mechanical and enzymatic digestion: -Acid chyme (nutrient- rich broth) - Pyloric sphincter to the small intestine Stomach Pyloric sphincter Cardiac orifice
Small intestine Small intestine Most of: – Enzymatic digestion occurs here –Absorption of nutrients into the blood stream occurs here
Figure p. 859 in Campbell Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus Stomach Lumen of small intes- tine Smaller polysac- charides, maltose Polysaccharides Disaccharides Carbohydrate digestion Salivary amylase Polysaccharides Pancreatic amylases Maltose and other disaccharides Epithelium of small intestine (brush border) Disaccharidases Monosaccharides Protein digestionNucleic acid digestion Proteins Fat digestion Fat globules DNA, RNA Fat droplets Nucleotides Bile salts Pancreatic lipase Pancreatic nucleases Nucleotidases Glycerol, fatty acids, glycerides Nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Nucleosides Nucleosidases and phosphatases Dipeptidases, carboxy- peptidase, and aminopeptidase Amino acids Small peptides Pancreatic carboxypeptidase Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin Smaller polypeptides Polypeptides Small polypeptides Pepsin
Stomach Pancreas Liver Gall- bladder Duodenum of small intestine Intestinal juice Bile Acid chyme Pancreatic juice Figure p. 858 in Campbell
Pancreas Secretes proteases into duodenum Inactive formActive form TrypsinogenTrypsin ProcarboxypeptidaseCarboxypeptidase ChymotrpsinogenChymotrypsin
Why doesn’t the small intestine digest itself? Pancreas Active proteases Fig Lumen of duodenum Membrane-bound enteropeptidase Inactive trypsinogen Other inactive proteases Active proteases Trypsin
Liver Produces bile that is stored in gallbladder Bile contain bile salts Bile salts aids digestion and absorption of fats
Large circular folds Vein carrying blood to hepatic portal vessel Muscle layers Villi Intestinal wall Most nutrient absorption occurs in small intestine
Structure of small intestine Lacteal Lymph vessel Villi Epithelial cells Blood capillaries
Microvilli (brush border) Epithelial cells Aid in nutrient transport across epithelial cells of sm. intestine into bloodstream
Large intestine (colon) Major function is to reabsorb water Ascending portion of large intestine Ileum of small intestine Rectum Anus Appendix Cecum Large Intestine
Here are a few review questions
What would happen if you had a defect in pepsin production?
A. carbohydrate would not be digested well B. meat would not be digested at all C. perhaps decreased absorption of protein
What would happen if you had a defect in salivary amylase production?
A. You would die B. You would be unable to digest starch C. The pH of the stomach would be affected D. None of the above What would happen if you had a defect in salivary amylase production?
Which of the following would you least like to donate to science while you are still alive? A. Cecum B. Pancreas C. Reproductive organs
What would happen if you had a defect in small intestine enteropeptidase?
A. Pancreatic enzymes would not be activated B. Liver enzymes would increased C. Your small intestine would become blocked D. None of the above
Variations of vertebrate digestive system Herbivorous mammals –Specialized fermentation chambers
Coyote vs. Koala Small intestine Stomach Cecum Colon (large intestine) Carnivore Herbivore Small intestine
Why does herbivory require specializations? Plant tissue –Harder to break up –Contains cellulose –Nutrients less concentrated than meat
Structure of cellulose
Only bacteria and protozoa can break down cellulose Via the enzyme cellulase
Cecum Pouch at junction between lg and sm intestine Large cecum in rabbits, some rodents, koala, horses Full of symbiotic bacteria Stomach Cecum Colon (large intestine) Herbivore Small intestine
Symbiosis “living together”
Cecum function Fermentation chamber Bacteria breakdown cellulose Feces must be reingested Stomach Cecum Colon (large intestine) Herbivore Small intestine
Chapter 45: Processing Food and Nutrition The Digestive System.
Animal Nutrition II (Ch. 41). Keywords Roles of mouth, stomach, sm.&lg. Intestine in digestion Pepsin, pepsinogen Villi, microvilli Cecum Cellulose Cellulase.
The Small Intestine The small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal It is the major organ of digestion and absorption.
Digestion Food: The easiest thing you will pass in school.
Human digestion. Human digestive system (General plan) Accessory digestive organs.
DIGESTION. Digestion is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb –Mechanical (chewing) and Chemical (break down by enzymes)
Objective: You will be able to identify the structures of the digestive system. Do Now: Read all of page 978 Give the function of the digestive system.
6.1 Digestion Readings IB Pg Overview: The Need to Feed Heterotrophs –dependent on a regular supply of food Animals fall into three categories:
DIGESTION & ABSORPTION Chapter 3. Outline Digestive Tracts The 4 Stages Ingestion Digestion Absorption Egestion Nutrition.
Lecture #18 Date ______ Chapter 41 ~ Animal Nutrition **** DO NOT rely on notes to teach you. These are provided to summarize the key points that YOU.
Thursday, January 14 th, 2010 DAILY QUIZ #1 You will need a sheet of lined paper + pen/pencil Clear off desk Put up a binder/text between person next to.
Animal nutrition Chapter 41. Function 1. Digestion 2. Absorption of nutrients/water –Energy –Growth 3. Elimination.
Most animals ingest chunks of food Figure 21.1E. 21.
Digestive System Chapter 18 Function Obtain resources from the external environment –Water –Minerals –Nutrients (Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins) –Vitamins.
Animal Nutrition Chapter 41 Types of Consumers Heterotrophic animals get energy, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients from their diet.
Digestive System. Table p Figure 21.21_1 Weight (pounds) 50 52 54 56 58 510.
The Digestive System Organs AIM: How do the organs of the Digestive System aid in the maintenance of homeostasis? Do Now: 1. How are Hydrolysis and Digestion.
Objective: You will be able to identify the structures of the digestive system. Do Now: Read page 978 List the accessory organs.
ANIMAL NUTRITION CHAPTER 41. Figure 41.0 Animals eating: foal, bear, and stork.
ABSORPTION AMYLASE BILE COLON DEFECATION DIGESTION DUODENUM EPIGLOTTIS ESOPHAGUS FECES GLANDS HCL HYDROLYSIS LIPASE LIVER MALTASE MOUTH NEUTRALIZE NUCLEASE.
Introduction to the Digestive System. Digestion Animals cannot ingest macromolecules made by other animals and use them directly 2 kinds: Mechanical.
The Human Digestive System. Oral Cavity Chewing Saliva moistens food Saliva contains enzymes.
Digestive Anatomy. Alimentary Canal organs thru which food actually passes oral cavity pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine.
Digestive System Continued... The Digestive Tract.
When Human Digestive System becomes A luxury tour is waiting for U Duodenum Dynamics Ad Agency© Disneyland…
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mammals See lecture notes (from board) for much of the mammal, digestive system, and urinary system material.
The Digestive System Lab. Organs of the Digestive System Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) – continuous passageway which contains the food from the time.
Digestion. Nitty Gritty Terms Intracellular Digestion: - digestion occurs within the cell Extracellular Digestion: - digestion occurs outside of the cell.
Aim: What are THE structures and functions of THE human digestive system? I. THE Human Digestive system – gets THE nutrients from THE food you eat into.
Click Here. ORAL CAVITY ESOPHAGUS LIVER STOMACH GALL BLADDER GALL BLADDER PANCREAS SMALL INTESTINE SMALL INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE RECTUM.
WARM-UP 1. (Ch. 40) What is the principle of countercurrent exchange? 2. (Review) What are the 4 classes of macromolecules? 3. (Ch. 41) You eat a piece.
Mammalian digestion. Teeth Teeth provide mechanical digestion by tearing food up into bits. See teeth powerpoint for differences in herbivore and carnivore.
Digestion: Obtaining & Processing Food Herbivores = plant-eaters Herbivores = plant-eaters Carnivores = meat-eaters Carnivores = meat-eaters Omnivores.
What happens where? STARCH to MALTOSESALIVARY AMYLASE REACTANT/PRODUCTENZYME PROTEINS to PEPTIDES LIPASE Chymo/trypsin LIPIDS to FAs & GLYCEROL PROTEINS.
Blood sugar levels regulated by pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon.
3.3.4 Human Digestive System. Need to know The functions of the main parts of the alimentary canal and the associated glands Function of teeth. The human.
PLO’s C1 - analyze the functional interrelationships of the structures of the digestive system.
Human Digestive System Digestion is the process by which organisms break large molecules into smaller ones For example, breaking down carbs, fats,
Digestion. Do Now Discuss the following with your seat partner: –Remember the last time you sat down to a dinner of your favorite foods? Recall everything.
Digestive System. Humans as Heterotrophs Hetero=another Trophe= nutrition As heterotrophs we cannot create carbon, therefore we need to ingest carbon.
SBI3U1. The Digestive System is made up of 1)The Digestive Tract 2)Accessory Organs.
Digestive System Parts and Function. Digestion All organisms are composed of four complex biological molecules: lipids (or fats), proteins, carbohydrates,
Digestion Mechanical Digestion (mouth, stomach) Chemical Digestion (mouth, stomach, intestines) Absorption (intestines) Assimilation (at each cell in the.
The Digestive System The mysterious process uncovered!
Digestion. Stages of Food Processing Ingestion – the act of taking in food Ingestion – the act of taking in food Digestion – the process of breaking.
Digestion Mechanical and Chemical Breakdown of Ingested Food.
The Digestive System. Digestive System Built around an alimentary canal (one-way tube) Built around an alimentary canal (one-way tube) Includes Includes.
The Digestive System. 4 steps for processing nutrients from food 1.Ingestion 2.Digestion 3.Absorption 4.Elimination.
Digestive System Gastrointestinal Tract 1. Mouth 2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Small Intestine 6. Large Intestine Accessory Structures 1. Teeth.
Human alimentary canal Section II Structures and functions in living organisms.
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