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Digestive System Gastrointestinal Tract 1. Mouth Accessory Structures

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Presentation on theme: "Digestive System Gastrointestinal Tract 1. Mouth Accessory Structures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Digestive System Gastrointestinal Tract 1. Mouth Accessory Structures
2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Small Intestine 6. Large Intestine Accessory Structures 1. Teeth 2. Tongue 3. Salivary Glands 4. Liver 5. Gallbladder 6. Pancreas

2 The Processes of Digestion
1. Ingestion taking food into the mouth 2. Secretion GI tract and accessory cells secrete water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into lumen 3. Mixing and Propulsion alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles in the walls of the GI tract 4. Digestion Breaking down of larger food particles into smaller molecules Mechanical Digestion Chemical Digestion 5. Absorption small molecules pass from the lumen into the blood and lymph 6. Defecation elimination of indigestible substances and bacteria from the GI tract

3 Mouth (Oral Cavity) Mechanical Digestion mastication (chewing)
tongue manipulates food teeth grind food saliva mixes so that food is reduced to a soft flexible mass called a bolus that is easily swallowed

4 Salivary Glands Chemical Digestion salivary amylase
initiates the breakdown of starch ingested disaccharides and starches must be broken down into monosaccharides lingual lipase initiates digestion of triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides

5 Esophagus and Swallowing

6 Stomach Functions: connects the esophagus to the duodenum
(first part of the small intestine) Functions: 1. serves as a mixing area for saliva, food and gastric juice 2. serves as a reservoir for holding food before release into the SI 3. secretes gastric juice (HCL, pepsin, intrinsic factor, gastric lipase) HCL kills bacteria, denatures protein pepsin begins digestion of proteins intrinsic factor aids absorption of vitamin B12 gastric lipase aids digestion of triglycerides 4. secretes gastrin (digestive hormone) into the blood

7 Physiology of Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach
Mechanical Digestion after food enters the stomach, gentle mixing waves pass over the stomach every seconds it macerates the food and mixes it with gastric juice, forming chyme the chyme moves back and forth and keeps mixing until it is sent through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum Chemical Digestion lingual lipase and salivary amylase continue to break down fats and carbohydrates respectively pepsin and HCL break down proteins gastric lipase splits triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides Peristalsis

8 Segmentation

9 Regulation of Gastric Secretion and Motility
Cephalic Phase: Sight, smell, taste, and thought initiate reflex Cortex and hypothalamus send impulses to medulla Parasympathetic (Vagus nerve) impulses from medulla promote: Peristalsis in stomach Gastric glands to secrete: Pepsinogen HCL Mucus gastrin Gastric Phase: Stretch receptors detect distention of stomach Chemoreceptors detect increased pH of gastric juice Stimulates stomach churning and secreting ACH from parasympathetic activity stimulates gastrin secretion Stimulates gastric juice secretion Stimulates stomach motility Intestinal Phase Stretch receptors detect distention of duodenum Chemoreceptors detect fatty acids and glucose in duodenum Impulses from small intestine inhibit stomach secretions and motility Stimulates release of: Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) Inhibits gastric secretions and gastric motility in stomach Secretin Decreases gastric secretions Cholecystokinin (CCK) Inhibits stomach emptying

10 Stomach Cell Layers

11 Stomach Cells

12 Small Intestines Functions:
source of the major events of digestion and absorption its long length (over 10 feet) is to increase the surface area it has many circular folds, villi and microvilli Functions: 1. mixes chyme with digestive juices and brings food in contact with surface mucosa for absorption 2. completes digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, & lipids begins & completes digestion of nucleic acids 3. is responsible for the absorption of about 90% of all nutrients

13 Small Intestines Physiology
Digestion chyme remains in SI for 3-4 hours Mechanical Digestion mixes chyme with digestive enzymes undergoes peristalsis Chemical Digestion pancreatic juice assists in digestion Absorption food products pass through mucosa absorptive cells passage of these molecules from the GI tract to the blood or lymph is called absorption

14 Small Intestine Cell Layers

15 Small Intestine Cells

16 Liver and Gall Bladder

17 Brush Border Enzymes Carbohydrate digesting: Protein digesting:
Alpha-dextrinase Maltase Sucrase Lactase Protein digesting: Aminopeptidase Dipeptidase Nucleic Acid digesting Nucleosidase Phosphatase

18 Glucose Absorption Carbohydrates are broken down into
monosaccharides like glucose Glucose passes through SI Absorptive cells via facilitative diffusion, actually with the help of a Na+ co-transporter Glucose then passively diffuses into the blood

19 Protein Absorption Proteins are broken down into amino acids
Amino acids and the slightly larger di-peptides passively diffuse across the membranes of the SI Absorptive cells Amino acids then passively diffuse into the blood

20 Pancreatic Juice Enzymes
Carbohydrate digesting: Pancreatic amylase Protein digesting: Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Elastace Lipid digesting Pancreatic lipase Nucleic Acid digesting Ribonuclease Deoxyribonuclease

21 Fat Absorption Large fat droplets are emulsified
into monoglycerides and fatty acids by bile salts from the liver and are packaged into micelles Micelles merge with SI Absorptive cells and via a type of endocytosis deposit the fat fragments in the cells The fat fragments are then reassembled into triglycerides in the cell and packaged in chylomicrons Chylomicrons then exit the cell and enter the lymph on their way to the liver for final digestion and storage

22 Large Intestine (Colon)
Functions: 1. completion of absorption 2. manufactures vitamins (some B’s & K) 3. formation of the feces 4. expulsion of the feces Structures: cecum ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon rectum anal canal anus anal sphincters

23 Rectum and Anus Internal Anal Sphincter External Anal Sphincter

24 Larger Intestine Cell Layers

25 Large Intestine Cells

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