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Artificial Sweeteners Tyler Banks April 24, 2006 Revised by: Phoebe Stinson February 26, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Artificial Sweeteners Tyler Banks April 24, 2006 Revised by: Phoebe Stinson February 26, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Artificial Sweeteners Tyler Banks April 24, 2006 Revised by: Phoebe Stinson February 26, 2007

2 Overview Overview of sweeteners Why we use them Types Aspartame Sucralose Conclusion

3 Why Artificial Sweetners? Reduce Obesity 60% of American adults overweight Improve Dental Health Carbohydrate management for diabetics Tastes similar to sugars Smaller amount needed for same level of sweetening of sugar Enhances and extends flavor

4 Artificial Sweeteners 5 Artificial sweeteners have been approved in the United States: Saccharin Sucralose Acesulfame potassium Neotame Aspartame

5 Saccharin “…saccharin’s safety is supported by 30 human studies, a century of use, the approval of the World Health Organization and 100 countries around the world, as well as leading health groups.” Oldest artificial sweetener; discovered in times sweeter than sucrose Sweet’N Low Studies show correlation between saccharin use and cancer

6 Aspartame Discovered in 1965 Nutrasweet,Equal, Natrataste Ingredient of approximately 5,000 consumer food and beverages times sweeter than sucrose

7 Acesulfame Potassium “Around 90 studies have been conducted on this sweetener, with no documented health risks.” Discovered in 1967 Approved in the United States since 1988 Sunett, Sweet One times sweeter than sucrose

8 Sucralose “Made from sugar, so it tastes like sugar” Discovered in 1976 Splenda Stable at high temperatures times sweeter than sucrose

9 Neotame 8,000 to 13,000 times sweeter than sucrose Approved in July 2002 Rapidly eliminated through normal body processes

10 Sweeteners Daily Intake SweetenerAcceptable Daily Intake Estimated Daily Intake Acesulfame Potassium Saccharin50.83 Aspartame508.7 Sucralose51.6 Neotame180.1 *The Acceptable Daily Intake is determined by the FDA ** The Estimated Daily Intake is based on the amount consumed by people whose intake exceeds that of 90% of the population

11 History of Aspartame Discovered in 1965 On market since 1979 Since 1967, more than 200 studies have been done on aspartame 1983-approved for use in carbonated beverages 1993-approved for use in baked goods and other beverages 1996-approved for use in all foods 1992-patent expired

12 Products Containing Aspartame Diet Soda Chewing Gum Breakfast cereals Vitamins Drugs Table-top sweeteners

13 Disadvantages of Aspartame Not stable at high temperatures Not proven safe for children Carcinogenic Harmful metabolic biproducts Protein-allergen?

14 Chemistry of Aspartame Composed of 2 amino acids Breaks down into Methanol Aspartic Acid Phenylalanine Methanol Aspartic Acid Phenylalanine

15 Methanol 10wt% of aspartame is broken down into methanol Methanol is converted to formaldehyde Causes blindness/blurred vision Increase in blood acidity Causes proteins to irreversibly bind DNA- cancer? Scientists are unsure if this is a problem

16 Methanol: A Problem?? Alcoholic beverages and fruit juices always contain protective chemicals like ethanol Levels of methanol in human metabolism are controlled Not enough methanol absorbed to cause toxicity More methanol in alcoholic beverages and fruit juices than the amount derived from aspartame ingestion

17 Aspartic Acid 40wt% of aspartame is broken down into aspartic acid In a class of chemicals known as excitotoxins High levels of excitotoxins have been shown to cause damage to areas of the brain

18 Phenylalanine 50wt% of aspartame is broken down into phenylalanine If consumed in high quantities may cause: Seizures Severe mood swings Anxiety Increase in blood pressure If consumed during pregnancy, can result in complications

19 Aspartame and the FDA FDA receives more complaints related to aspartame than any other food additive 92 different health effects have been reported to the FDA Abdominal pain Excessive thirst Arthritis Diarrhea Dizziness Headaches Irritability Joint pains Nausea Rapid heartbeat Poor memory Breathing difficulty Slurring speech Itching

20 History of Sucralose 1976-Discovered 1977-final formula settled upon 1991-Approved in Canada 1993-Approveed in Australia 1996-Approved in New Zealand 1998-Patented and approved in US 2006-approved in over 60 countries

21 Chemistry of Sucralose Chlorine molecules provide stability Passes through body without breaking down Thermal stability Doesn’t lose taste with cooking

22 Products Containing Sucralose Over 4500 food and beverage products Diet Soda Light Yogurt Sugar-free chocolate Light juices

23 Sucralose- Possible Benefits? Less acidogenic than sugar Decreases plaque and tooth decay Small, somewhat inert molecule Largely unabsorbed-85% Doesn’t break down-no dechlorination Highly water soluble with low fat solubility Doesn’t accumulate in body Quickly eliminated from body

24 Sucralose- Possible Benefits? Not substrate for oral or stomach bacteria Safe on teeth and GI tract Doesn’t bind to proteins Doesn’t linger in body, non-allergenic Non-carcinogenic Zero Calories Can be safely used by all populations Only 15% passive diffusion

25 Sucralose Disadvantages Cost Possible migrane trigger Possible cecal enlargement Renal Mineralization Does break down to dichlorofructose Diarrhea and other digestive problems Shrinks Thymus gland This would require >20000 splenda packets/day Any effect on immune system >5000 packets/day

26 Why is nothing happening? No scientific evidence FDA Huge Industry Any others people can think of?

27 References ed&list_uids= &dopt=Citation ed&list_uids= &dopt=Citation Artificial sweeteners: Okay in Moderation. (2004). Harvard Womens Health Watch. 11 (11) Harder, B. Not So Sweet. Science News. 169 (7). Hull, J. (2005). The Dangers of Artificial Sweeteners. Total Health. 27 (1) Thomas, P. (2005). Aspartame. The Ecologist. 35 (7)

28 References


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