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Sweeteners Facts and Fallacies

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1 Sweeteners Facts and Fallacies
Sadia Shaukat Sodexo Dietetic Intern 2013

2 We are born with a sweet tooth True False
Humans are hardwired to prefer sweet from birth. Sugars are a type of carbohydrate. When we eat carbs, they stimulate the release of the feel-good brain chemical serotonin. Most brain cells are influenced in some way by serotonin. This includes brain cells related to mood, sexual function, sleep, memory and learning, and appetite. No wonder sweet things make us feel so good.

3 Love of sweet taste Liking of sweet taste is innate.
Perception of sweetness and preferred level of sweetness varies among individuals. Even infants shown a response to sweetness. Sweet receptors found on tongue plays a role in stimulating appetite.

4 How many teaspoons of sugar does an average American eat and drink everyday?
9 13 17 22 We eat and drink 22 teaspoons -- or almost half a cup -- of added sugar each day. That's way more than the American Heart Association recommends: 6 teaspoons per day for women and 9 for men. Our sweets add up: Americans basically consume their weight -- about 142 pounds -- in sugar in just one year.

5 Sugars & Health Concerns
Consumption of foods with added sugars has increased. Added sugars are linked to the overweight and obesity problems. 2010 Dietary Guidelines indicating 16% of total energy intake is from added sugar. Food industry developed lower-calorie but just-as-sweet options. Sugar sweetened beverages ( soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, sugar sweetened water) grain based desserts, and fruit drinks are top sources of added sugar, contributing to close to 60% of added sugar intake.

6 Eating too much sugar can cause Diabetes? True False
Type 1 diabetes is genetic and triggered by unknown causes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by genetics and lifestyle factors, but not sugar specifically. However, being overweight and eating a high-calorie diet -- which often includes a lot of added sugar -- can raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

7 Types of Sweeteners Nutritive Sweeteners Sugar Alcohols (Polyols)
Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (NNS) I will give an brief overview of nutritive sweeteners & polyols but elaborate NNS

8 Nutritive Sweeteners Contain Carbohydrates and provide energy.
Contain 4 calories per gram. Referred as : Sugar, added sugar or caloric sweeteners. Occurs naturally in all fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Added to food during processing or in preparation.

9 On the food labels, the amount of sugar is listed as grams, What is one gram of sugar?
¼ teaspoon ½ teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon ¼ teaspoon

10 Added sugar terms on food labels
Anhydrous dextrose Lactose Brown sugar Malt syrup Confectioner’s powder sugar Maltose Corn syrup Maple syrup Corn syrup solids Molasses Dextrose Nectars (e.g., peach nectar, pear nectar) Fructose Pan cake syrup High-fructose corn syrup Raw sugar Honey Sucrose Invert sugar White granulated sugar Avoiding added sugars require good label reading and recognizing words that indicate the presence of sugar in a product.

11 Where do added sugars often hide? Fruit drinks Dairy desserts Cereals
All the above All the above

12 Sugar Alcohols Decreases the intake of carbohydrates.
Almost provides 2 calories per gram. Calories vary because of digestibility and metabolism. Usually used in combination with other polyols or NNS. Examples: sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and erythritol. Can be labeled as Sugar-Free

13 Non-nutritive Sweeteners (NNS)
Ist NNS “saccharin” was discovered in NNS have been used for to achieve a sweet taste, for economics, blood glucose control or energy control. NNS approved for use in the US have been tested and determined to be safe at levels that are within the ADI.

14 NNS Approved in USA The seven NNS currently approved for use in USA are: Acesulfame-K (Sweet one, Sunett) Aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet) Luo han guo Neotame Saccharin (SweetN’ Low) Stevia (Truvial) Sucralose (Splanda) I will describe each one source, ADI, times sweeter than sugar etc. I will also provide handout on 7 approved NNS

15 Guidance on use of NNS 2010 Dietary Guidelines
“Substituting NNS for higher-energy foods and beverages can decrease energy intake, but evidence of their effectiveness for weight management is limited”. National Cancer Institute “ there is no clear evidence that the NNS available commercially in the USA are associated with cancer risk in human beings” (2009).

16 Guidance on use of NNS American Diabetes Association
“Sugar alcohols & NNS are safe when consumed within the daily intake levels established by FDA” (2008). Recommendation for management of diabetes include monitoring carbohydrates by counting carbohydrate counting, choices to achieve glycemic control. Choosing NNS instead of nutritive sweeteners is one method to assist with moderating carbohydrate intake.

17 Guidance on use of NNS Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
“ Consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by federal nutrition recommendations, such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary reference intakes, as well ad individual health goals and personal preference” (2012).

18 Safety FDA is in charge for approving NNS.
FDA review products containing NNS. Establish Acceptable daily Intake (ADI) based on body weight that is deemed safe over a lifetime. ADI is set at 1% of the amount that has been found not to produce any adverse health effects in animal studies.

19 How the various NNS tested?
Acesulfame-K has been tested in animals using amount significantly exceed those anyone could consume and there has been no evidence of tumors or cancer. Aspartame NCI date showed that incidence of brain tumors started to increase in 1973, before aspartame was available for consumption.

20 How the various NNS tested?
Luo han guo received Generally Recoginized as safe status from FDA in Neotame FDA reveiwed more than 100 studies showing no evidence of health risks or connection to cancer. Saccharin safety has been discussed for more than 40 years

21 How the various NNS tested?
Stevia Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives declared it’s safe for general use. Sucralose was deemed safe based on extensive toxicology studies.

22 Aspartame ADI Example ADI for aspartame is 50 mg per kg of body weight per day Aspartame containing products Appr. Number of serving per day to reach ADI Adult (150 lbs) Child (50 lbs) Carbonated soft drink (12 oz) 20 6 Powdered soft drink (8 oz) 33 11 Gelatin (4 oz) 42 14 Tabletop sweetener (packet) 97 32

23 Role in weight management
The addition on NNS to diet poses no benefit for weight loss or reduce weight gain without energy restriction (Am J Clin Nutr,2009). Replacing added sugars with NNS may reduce calorie intake in the short-term, yet the question remain about their effectiveness as a weight management strategy (DGA 2010).

24 Role in weight management
NNS have not been shown to cause weight gain, craving for sweets, or increased hunger levels. NNS when used in place of full- calorie foods and beverages, help reduce total calories in diet and keep away from feeling deprived from the sweet-tasting foods (J Acad Nutr Diet 2012).

25 Final Thoughts The Seven FDA approved NNS are safe when consumed within recommended Acceptable Daily Intake. Studies showed that the use of NNS does not approach ADI amount. Including NNS as part of your eating plan may help reduce carbohydrates and calorie intake. THE CHOICE IS YOURS

26 Sadia Shaukat Sodexo Dietetic Intern 2013
Questions??? Sadia Shaukat Sodexo Dietetic Intern 2013

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