Presentation on theme: "Why TADAT? Tax collection is a central—even a defining—function of government Weak tax administration compromises development , growth, and basic trust."— Presentation transcript:
1 Tax Administration Diagnostic Assessment Tool Paul Martens on behalf of the TADAT Secretariat
2 Why TADAT?Tax collection is a central—even a defining—function of governmentWeak tax administration compromises development , growth, and basic trust in governmentChallenges faced remarkably similar across tax administrations at all levels of development—Finding taxpayers, identifying and addressing risks …Meaning scope and need for an objective, standardized performance assessment of tax administrations
3 What is TADAT?A tool to provide an objective, standardized performance assessment of a country’s tax administration—Taking its cue from the PEFA* tool for Public Financial Management (PFM) to ensure close alignment.PEFA: Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability
4 History of this initiative The genesis for the project was the PEFA Steering Committeecommissioning a feasibility study in 2011 that concluded:A PEFA-like diagnostic tool for tax administrations would be highly desirable to many stakeholders and technically feasible.The tool would have to meet several important criteria:Comprehensive yet straight-forwardAble to be applied across different countriesEvidence basedIt’s wide use would depend on acceptance as an international standard by the main international organizations, major donors and countries.Key challenges are to develop benchmarks and ensure simplicity.IMF has taken the lead on the development of the tool but has actively involved other stakeholders
6 How does it work?The TADAT framework views the outcomes achieved across 9 critical performance outcome areas (POAs) of tax administration, that:Comprises a Set of 27 high-level indicators critical to tax administration performance, that:Drills down to 60 measured and scored Dimensions (on a scale of A to D).
7 Key Design ElementsA framework that is designed to deliver objective assessments of the most critical outcomes of a tax administrationA tool that allows for repeated measurement over time of the performance of a country’s tax administrationA tool that will allow for some level of country comparison when sufficient applications of the tool have been completedA tool that is aligned with the design of the PEFA PFM tool and can be used by any agency with trained and accredited assessorsA tool that focuses on performance of major national taxes:□ Corporate and personal income tax□ VAT□ Employer and other withholding taxes
8 Intended OutcomesBetter identification of the relative strengths and weaknesses in the tax administrationFacilitating discussion towards a shared view among stakeholdersImprovements in setting reform objectives, establishing priorities and implementation sequencing – and strengthening of design of tax administration reform initiativesBetter coordination of external support for reforms – faster and more efficient implementationProvides a basis for monitoring and evaluating reform progress towards established targets through repeat assessmentsDot point 2: Stakeholders: Country authoritiesInternational organizationsDonor countriesTA providersDot point 4: Limited donor financing for reforms can be used more effectively
10 Desired End State - Performance Outcome Areas Taxpayers are included in the taxpayer registration base and the information held about them is accurateThe tax administration is clear about the risks to the tax system and is responding to themTaxpayers have the necessary information and encouragement to voluntarily complyTaxpayers file their tax returns as required by lawTaxpayers meet their payment obligationsThe tax administration assesses the accuracy of reporting through verificationThe dispute resolution process is independent and effectiveThe tax administrations operations are efficient and focus on the most important tax administration functionsThe tax administration is transparent in the conduct of its activities and accountable to the government and the community
12 POA 1: Integrity of the Registered Taxpayer Base Tax administrations must compile and maintain a complete database of citizens and businesses that are required by law to register.Without complete and accurate information on registered taxpayers, and an understanding of the profile of those who fail to register, a tax administration cannot provide effective services to support voluntary compliance and take action against non-compliance.Two performance indicators (with 3 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 1.
13 POA 1: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredAccurate and reliable informationThe adequacy of information held on registered taxpayers and the extent to which the registration database supports effective compliance management.The accuracy of information held in the registration database.Knowledge of the potential taxpayer baseThe extent of initiatives to detect individuals and businesses that are required to register but fail to do so.
14 POA 2: Assessment of Risk Understanding the risks in the tax system is critical to managing taxpayer compliance, including how tax administration resources are allocated to achieve the widest possible impact on voluntary compliance across the taxpayer population.Institutional risks, such as IT system failure, must also be managed.Three performance indicators (with 5 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 2.
15 POA 2: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredIdentification, assessment, ranking and quantification of compliance risks.The process used to identify, assess, and prioritize taxpayer compliance risks.The process used to estimate the scale of tax revenue leakage.Identification, assessment, ranking and quantification of institutional risks.The process used to identify, assess and prioritize tax administration institutional risks.Design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of risk mitigation activities.The action taken and resources applied to respond to the highest compliance and institutional risks.The process used to monitor and evaluate the impact of risk mitigation activities.
16 POA 3: Supporting voluntary compliance Tax administrations must adopt a service-oriented approach toward taxpayers, ensuring that taxpayers have the information and support they need to meet their tax obligations and claim their entitlements.Three performance indicators (with 6 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 3.
17 POA 3: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredScope, currency, and accessibility of informationThe range of information available to taxpayers to explain, in clear terms, what their obligations and entitlements are in respect of each core tax.The degree to which information is current in terms of the law and administrative policy.The ease by which taxpayers obtain information and advice from the tax administration.Time taken to respond to information requestsThe time taken by the tax administration to respond to taxpayer requests for information and advice.Monitoring of taxpayer perceptions of serviceThe quality and frequency of methods used to obtain performance feedback from taxpayers.The extent to which taxpayer input is taken into account in the design of taxpayer service programs and products.
18 POA 4: Filing of Tax Returns Filing of tax returns is a principal means by which a taxpayer’s tax liability is established and becomes due and payable under the law. Filing performance has a direct impact on collections.Two performance indicators (with 8 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 4.
19 POA 4: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredTax return filing rateThe number of returns filed in % of the total number of returns required from registered taxpayers for each core tax:- Corporate income tax (CIT)- Personal income tax (PIT) of self-employed- Value added tax (VAT)- Pay-as-you-earn (PAYE) withholdingOn-time filing rateThe number of returns filed by the statutory due date in % of all returns filed for each core tax:- CIT- PIT self-employed- VAT- PAYE withholding
20 POA 5: Payment of obligations Government fiscal outcomes are affected if taxpayers fail to pay taxes on time. The aim of tax administration is to achieve a high level of voluntary on-time payment and low incidence of tax arrears (arrears collection is costly and time consuming).Two performance indicators (with 6 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 5.
21 POA 5: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredTimeliness of paymentsThe number of VAT* payments made by the statutory due date in % of the total number of payments due.The value of VAT payments made by the due date in % of the total value of VAT payments due.* VAT is used a proxy for on-time payment performance of core taxes generally.Stock and flow of tax arrearsThe value of total tax arrears at year-end in % of total tax revenue collections for the year.The value of collectible tax arrears at year-end in % of total tax revenue collections for the year.The number of tax arrears cases at year-end in % of the number of cases at the start of the year.The value of tax arrears more than 12 months’ old in % of the value of all tax arrears.
22 POA 6: Accuracy of reporting Tax systems rely heavily on taxpayers accurately declaring their tax obligations.A major source of revenue underperformance is due to inaccurate reporting by taxpayers in tax returns, especially under-reporting of business income by SMEs/ self-employed.Three performance indicators (with 7 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 6.
23 POA 6: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredKnowledge of level of accurate reportingThe extent of tax administration intelligence gathering and research studies into the accuracy of reporting in tax returns by taxpayers.Strength of taxpaying cultureBased on research findings and analysis, the strength of the taxpaying culture of:- individual non-business taxpayers- individual self-employed taxpayers- small/medium corporate taxpayers- large corporate taxpayersCompliance strategy alignment and revenue results from verification activitiesThe extent of alignment of the tax administration’s compliance strategy to the assessed taxpaying culture.The value of completed audit actions for the fiscal year in % of annual tax collections for the year.
24 POA 7: Tax dispute resolution Resolution of tax disputes in a way that is seen as independent, speedy, and fair is critical to public perceptions of the integrity of tax administration.Four performance indicators (with 8 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 7.
25 POA 7: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredExistence of an independent, workable, and graduated dispute resolution processWhether the tax administration’s mechanism for reviewing objections is independent of the audit process.The extent to which there is an appropriately graduated mechanism of administrative and judicial review.Whether information on the dispute process is published, and taxpayers explicitly made aware of it.Stock and flow of dispute casesThe value of tax in dispute in % of total collections.The number of dispute cases at year-end relative to cases at the start of the year.Time taken to resolve disputesAverage time taken by the tax admin to determine an objection.Average time taken by judiciary to decide an appeal.Dispute outcomes are acted uponThe extent to which the tax administration responds to dispute outcomes.
26 POA 8: Efficiency of tax administration Governments expect operational efficiency, and citizens and businesses increasingly demand quality services from tax administrations.Operational performance is enhanced by use of efficient collection mechanisms (such as withholding at source) and processing systems that exploit modern technologies. Also crucial is the allocation of resources to the most important tax revenue streams.Four performance indicators (9 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 8.
27 POA 8: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredAchievement of tax revenue outcomesExtent to which tax revenue outcomes are met.Use of efficient collection and reporting systemsExtent of withholding and third party reporting systems.Efficiency of filing and payment design.Extent of electronic filing arrangements.Extent of electronic payment arrangements.Efficiency of processing and accounting systemsThe accuracy and timeliness of transactions posted to the taxpayer ledger.Efficiency of processing VAT refund claims.Efficiency of processing income tax returns.Core tax administration focusProportion of tax administration staff used in non-core functions
28 POA 9: Accountability and transparency Accountability and transparency are two of the central pillars of good governance. The extent to which the tax administration is transparent in the conduct of its activities and accountable for the way it uses public resources and exercises authority contributes directly to public perceptions of integrity of the tax system.Four performance indicators (with 8 measurement dimensions) are used to assess POA 9.
29 POA 9: Indicators and dimensions Dimensions to be measuredExternal oversight of the tax administrationThe extent of independent external oversight of the tax administration’s operations and financial performance.The investigation process for suspected wrongdoing and maladministration.Level of internal controlsAdequacy of internal controls to protect the systems of administration from error and fraud.The level of assurance provided by internal audit.Staff integrity assurance mechanisms.Public perception of integrityLevel of public confidence in the tax administration.Publication of activities, results and plansThe extent to which the financial and operational performance of the tax administration is reported.The extent to which there is publication of the tax administration’s future directions and plans.
30 Scoring the Indicators All have between 1 to 4 dimensionsEach dimension is separately assessedOverall score for an indicator is based on the assessment of the dimensions related to that indicator:Method 1 – Single dimension indicatorsMethod 2 – Multiple dimension indicatorsScores A B C D'A' is set as "internationally accepted good practice", with the lower grades increasing deviations from thisAlso a ‘No score’ categoryIs the measurement relevant, highly significant and material to an assessment of the indicator - does it focus on a critical aspect of the indicator?Does the measurement, along with up to three other measurements, provide a complete basis for scoring the indicator?Does the measurement relate to an outcome of tax administration rather than an input to tax administration?Can the measurement be unambiguously defined?Is the measurement quantifiable, or otherwise objective and based in fact, supportable by documentary evidence?Is the measurement one for which benchmarks across tax administrations are commonly available or can be developed?Is it realistic to expect that the measurement will be observable and obtainable in most low and lower middle income countries?Is the measurement able to be repeated consistently and comparably over time
31 Process of an Assessment Assessment will be undertaken by accredited assessorsAssessors will use the indicator-led analysis and be supported by:Initial trainingPerformance measurement frameworkComprehensive field guidelinesA Performance Assessment Report will be prepared to formalize the findings.Is the measurement relevant, highly significant and material to an assessment of the indicator - does it focus on a critical aspect of the indicator?Does the measurement, along with up to three other measurements, provide a complete basis for scoring the indicator?Does the measurement relate to an outcome of tax administration rather than an input to tax administration?Can the measurement be unambiguously defined?Is the measurement quantifiable, or otherwise objective and based in fact, supportable by documentary evidence?Is the measurement one for which benchmarks across tax administrations are commonly available or can be developed?Is it realistic to expect that the measurement will be observable and obtainable in most low and lower middle income countries?Is the measurement able to be repeated consistently and comparably over time
32 Governance Arrangements Steering CommitteeOfficially formed February 2014Composition – Donors (including the EC), IMF and World BankFunctions - Strategic guidanceSecretariatIMF Hosted, Comprising: Unit Head +3 Professionals +1 SupportFunctions- Design & maintenance of the tool - Quality control- Program delivery Financial arrangements- Results management Evaluation- AccountabilityTechnical Advisory GroupComposition – International tax administrations and organizationsFunctions - Technical support to the Secretariat
33 Proof of Concept Testing Pilot Assessment Missions across a wide-range of situations:Level of Economic DevelopmentRegion, Language, and HeritageEconomic and Governance CharacteristicsNovember First Pilot in ZambiaDecember Second Pilot in NorwayJune Third in South AfricaJuly – Nov further pilot assessments possibly in:Latin AmericaMiddle EastAsia PacificDeliver Collaboratively with Regional Tax Admin Organizations
34 Timetable Current priorities Finalizing the detailed technical design Finalizing operational guidance (Field Guide)Further piloting (further 3 pilots in 2014)Developing an Accreditation & Training Strategy & ProgramSeptember - Next Steering CommitteeJanuary-October Implementation in controlled roll out phaseLate Full production mode
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