2What is a city?This is always a tricky definition and not very straight forwardIs it based on population?Is it based on what is in the city?Does it have to have a cathedral? (a really common misconception!)
3Different types of City Super city – population over 5 millionMegacity – population over 10 millionWorld city – are cities of power based on trade, political strength, innovation and communicationsDo you have to be a megacity to be a world city?New York and Tokyo are both megacities and world cities. But what about London? It is a super city (not mega) but many people consider it to be the world’s most important city because of its connections through commerce, trade, service provision and travel flows just to name a few factors
4World cities are connected to other places all over the world World cities are connected to other places all over the world. However the places that they are connected to are not random, but are strategically located either for travel reasons, or for economic and political reasons. Places that are not connected to world cities (or even secondary cities) could be left out of the globalised world in a number of different ways
5What can maps like this tell us about different cities around the world and their connections?
6How are cities growing There are 2 main processes: The first is internal growth (natural increase). This happens because city dwellers (particularly in developing countries) have high birth ratesThe second is those who move to the cities from the countryside. These tend to be young, fertile people who cause this high birth rate within cities
7Urban GrowthThe poorest parts of the world have become the fastest growing, with migration dominating this growthIn some countries, this growth can be as much as 6 – 8% with much of this growth in slumsBy 2020 the amount of people living in slums around the world will reach between 1.3 – 1.4 billion
9Why do rural dwellers migrate? Most people who migrate to urban slums are not moving blindly (unless its through war or a natural disaster)People are well aware of the problems living of living in the city as they will have likely made arrangements for accommodation and jobs with family or friendsDespite the living conditions, they know that in the long run their prospects are better than in the rural area
10Problems created by urban – rural migration Strain on services e.g. education, transport health careWater supplyFoodJob supplyHousing provisionNext lesson we are going to look at what is being done to solve this!
11Urban ProcessesMany developing cities are continuing to grow though a number of processes:Urban sprawl: Urban areas growing outwards in an uncontrollable way. In the developing world this results in slumsSuburbanisation: The wealthy choosing to live on the city edge to escape poverty, crime, congestion and pollution in the city centre. A new trend is the gated community
12In the developed worldCounter urbanisation: Movement of people out of the cities and into rural areasRe-urbanisation: This is the regeneration of urban areas that have declined over previous year
13Mumbai: An example of a rapidly urbanising megacity Commercial capital of IndiaHome of BollywoodSeen as the technological hub of IndiaSome rents here are more expensive than in London and New York