Presentation on theme: "Field Instructor Training Cultural Competence (Part I)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Field Instructor Training Cultural Competence (Part I) Lorraine Brave, J’May Rivara, Michelle BagshawNovember 6, 2008
2 Cultural Competence and Supervision (Part I) Lorraine, Michelle, J’May Agenda 11/6/2008 1:30-4:30 Welcome and energizerExpectations and overviewIntroduction to privilege ,power, and oppression in our communities & workplaceIntegrating social justice course (Soc W 504) and supervisionActivity - identity wheelLarge group discussionStretch breakExploring diversity in the supervisory relationship:Future trainings and additional readings, closing comments and evaluationAdjourn
4 ObjectivesTo enhance ways to dialogue with students on cultural competence as a developmental process.Make connections between students’ course work and practicum experiences.Address skill development for directly handling issues of diversity in your supervisory relationship with your students.Address skill development for helping students in directly handling issues of diversity with their clients.
5 Introduction to privilege, power and oppression Celebrating differences includes the sometimes painful process of becoming aware of the many ways all of us are affected by unearned privilege and oppression in this society.Because we all have multiple social identities, people are both targets of oppression and agents of oppression.Privilege is defined as unearned entitlements for a certain group and exclusion of others such as limited employment opportunities for older people.
6 *Privilege also includes conferred dominance, which gives one group power over another, such as people who are abled in contrast to people with disabilities.*Oppression and dominance name social realities that we can participate in without being oppressive or dominating people.
7 Dealing Directly with Differences It is our hope that by giving you tools will help decrease anxiety and raise your confidence in your ability to address issues of social and cultural diversity with students.By directly, we mean the ability to be appropriately open and candid about differences.
8 Integrating Course work (SW504) and Field Supervision Focusing on professional and personal development toward social work practice for cultural diversity and social justice.The course is designed to develop critical self-reflection, respectful engagement across differences in perspectives, experiences & histories, as well as a preliminary base for multicultural social work practice skill development.
9 The purpose of this course is to enable students to articulate a personal-professional stance toward social work practice for cultural diversity & social justice.The course will provide a forum for students to:
10 A) critically, examine their social identities & positionalities embedded in race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, class, ability status, religion & national origin among other intersecting identities and positionalities.B) Reflect on how socio-cultural beliefs, assumptions and values affect their social work practice.C) This course aims to help students develop multicultural competencies of critical self-reflection, multicultural values & ethics, knowledge, awarenessand skills.
11 Identity Wheel Activity Please give yourself about 15 minutes to create your own identity wheel.You may want to review the example first.We encourage you to share with one or two other people in our class.
12 Sharing Identity Wheel What happened to you as you thought about the various groups you belong to?What thoughts or feelings came up when you listened to your partner list his or her groups?Consider how membership in your groups may contribute to your being privileged in some way. What is it like to think of yourself as privileged? What is it like to think of yourself or others as having unmerited privilege?
13 Exploring Diversity and the Supervisory Relationship Reflecting questionsParallel processPowerBoundariesExploring DilemmasIn this section we’re going to explore Diversity in the Supervisory RelationshipWe’ve looked at our own social identities and now were looking at what that means in terms of supervision with students. Cultural competence is a life long journey and we start by knowing ourselves and where we are socially located in society, that helps us to develop skills to be culturally competent—knowing who we are allows us to see where structures.(Individual vs. Systemic)
14 Reflecting QuestionsThink of a time in your personal or professional life when you took a risk to share or do something that was important to you even though you had no idea what the result might be. Consider the internal process that you experienced in trying to reach the decision to take the risk. What happened that finally enabled you to do so?Answering these questions may provoke participants’ anxiety and fears of exposure. They may be in denial of problems and have little to share because of avoidant behaviors. They may also be reluctant to share painful memories about past supervisory experiences or fear their stores may expose contradictions between state principles and practices. GIVE EXAMPLESSupervising four students who are part of the same religious community—we all worked together very closely, but there were implications for the people we worked with, but I avoided bringing it up… concerned about judgment, not sure what to say…didn’t establish good boundaries about what was appropriate to talk about and what wasn’tIn anther setting I went on CPS investigation with a white man working in the AA office and neither of us brought up that he was white or what that meant for his/our workTell participants that the Reflecting Questions for this part of the training are designed to:increase awareness of discomfort in working with differences in supervision. This increased sense of unease actually represents growth and courage on the part of the participants who can identify areas of discomfort. It is also a first step toward becoming m ore effective teachers for social work students.
15 2. List several more examples in supervision that you now recognize as times when you avoided discussing an issue that could have been an opportunity to promote or enhance cultural competence? What do you now understand contributed to these blind spots in behavior? How would you act differently now?Use responses as opportunities to explore real examples of:AvoidanceAmbivalent attitudes toward exercising powerManagement of boundary dilemmas.Avoidant behaviors typically include a lack of initiative or indirect communication in addressing differences and distancing relative to personal engagement with supervisees.Because being indirect is preferred mode of communication in some cultures (such as Japanese) , trainers must also assess if indirect communication is a reflection of the participants’ culture or a strategy to avoid discomfort associated with addressing challenging diversity issues.Material generated from responses to Reflecting questions becomes the catalyst for trainers to introduce cultural and social diversity issues in the supervisory relationship. If there is no discomfort about the questions, this peculiarity should be noted and reflected back to the group. Encourage sharing by describing your own struggles with addressing diversity issues with supervisees.
16 3. In the past, we (some people) thought the goal of cultural competence was to be colorblind—to emphasize our sameness rather than celebrate diversity. How is it possible to appreciate our common human experience in the context of honoring differences? What are the implications for supervision?
17 Parallel ProcessRefers to an unconscious process in which the issues and dynamics in one relationship are reenacted in another relationship: two relationships parallel each other.Research shows that which occurs, or doesn’t occur in the relationship between filed instructor and student may be mirrored in the way the student works with clients.Parallel process refers to an unconscious process in which the issues and dynamics in one relationship are reenacted in another relationship; hence the two relationships “parallel” each other. In reference to supervision, Doehrman (1976) has shown that what occurs or does not occur in the relationship between FI and student may be mirrored in the way that the student works with clients. It is also possible that the student will reenact in supervision what the student is experiencing with the client (Bogo 1993). The implications related to teaching in cultural competence in the field seem obvious—If FIs avoid being direct in discussing physically visible or invisible differences with their students (such as age, race, gender, etc) student are more likely to avoid noticing or dealing with differences with their clients. Likewise, FIs can assess dynamics in the student’s relationship with the client by noting the dynamics that emerge in the supervisory relationship (Peterson 1986). For example: if a Sudanese student avoids addressing potentially volatile material in the student-client relationship such as beating a child, whish is a culturally sanctioned practice in Sudan, but prohibited in the United States, the FI can assess this dynamic by noting in how (or if) the student circumvents issues in the case in discussions with the FI.EXAMPLE:At the AA nobody spoke much about how race of workers might impact our work, although at the time we worked with families whose child/children who identified as AA. We didn’t talk about race of social workers and in turn I did not talk with clients about it.“the elephant in the room”
18 Parallel Process Cont. Implications for cultural competence: If field instructors avoid being direct in discussing physically visible or invisible differences between themselves and students (age, gender, race, etc) students are more likely to avoid noticing differences with clients.
19 Field instructors can assess dynamics in the student’s relationship with the client by noting the dynamics that emerge in the supervisory relationshipTake a few minutes to think of examples you have seen in your practice. (You’ll use these examples a little later.)
20 Power in the supervisory relationship Although the concept of power is core to the supervisory relationship, open discussion about the impact of the Field Instructor’s role power of the power differential tends to be limited (Kaiser 1997; Peterson, 1992; Van Soest, 2004).PowerExplores the multifaceted role of power in the supervisory relationship.Although the concept of power is core to the supervisory relationship open discussion about the impact of the FIs role power of the power differential tends to be limited (Kaiser 1997; Peterson, 1992; Van Soest, 2004).Address the following areas:FI’s discomfort with exercising their powerNecessity to accept powerCreative use of the power differential as a teaching toolDiscuss the following issues of power as they relate to supervision:Sometimes FIs are reluctant to approach issues that create discomfort in the student (Marshack et al, 1994; Priddy, 2004). FIs may want to protect students from feeling badly about the mistakes they have made. They worry that discomfort will result in distancing, because the student will not feel safe.
21 PowerField instructors are sometimes reluctant to approach issues that create a discomfort in the student.Accepting power and using power as a differential teaching tool
22 Sometimes Field Instructors are reluctant to approach issues that create discomfort in the student (Marshack et al, 1994; Priddy, 2004). FIs may want to protect students from feeling badly about the mistakes they have made. They worry that discomfort will result in distancing, because the student will not feel safe.This logic is problematic for a few reasons:FIs put their own needs for comfort and safety ahead of the student’s learningFIs abdicate responsibility by giving the student, who is in a more vulnerable position, the job of introducing topics that are likely to increase discomfortThe FI ends up modeling avoidant behavior which the student may mimic with his or her clientsAccepting the power difference allows the FI to acknowledge how the power differential in status between FI and student creates real-life opportunities to explore power-related issues, such as the privilege of holding authority over those with less power and the potential to use the power oppressively.Accepting PowerPower is central to diversity issues (Pinderhughes, 1989). Difference in social class, for example, often reflect difference in social status. Differences in sexual orientation or gender identity may reflect oppressive judgment by people who deem themselves to be more moral or superior. These power dynamics play alongside the power differential that denies the supervisory relationship. To the degree that FIs inappropriately minimize the power inherent in their role, they also may minimize the need to address power differences created by social disparities. If a FIs come to terms with their power in the supervisory relationship, they are less likely to be avoidant in addressing the role inequities between themselves and their students, as well as the social inequities between students and clients. FIs willingness to come to terms with their power is a critical first step in addressing cultural and social diversity issues with students.Address how the power differential in status between FI and student creates real-life opportunities to explore power-related issues, such as the privilege of holding authority over those with less power and the potential to use the power oppressively. GIVE EXAMPLEWhen I was at CPS there is a huge power differential as a social worker doing CPS investigations and the people/families being investigated. A really clear example of having authority of those with less power.Also discuss how these particular dynamics contribute to discriminatory behavior in relationships and situation where there are social inequities. Examples of un earned privilege: differences in race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.
23 Power differential as a teaching tool Within the supervisory relationship, there is an opportunity to explore these dynamics for learning, because the student may experience feelings of injustice if he or she perceives the FIs exercise of power as unfairly controlling of the students’ behavior.This concern is more likely when there are obvious cultural and social differences between the FI and student. For example, a young Caucasian supervisor and an older African American student. As a result, FIs often wait for the student to initiate discussion of diversity issues under the misguided assumption that raising difficult topics could strain the relationship.Within the supervisory relationship, there is an opportunity to explore these dynamics for learning, because the student may experience feelings of injustice if he or she perceives the FIs exercise of power as unfairly controlling of the students’ behavior. For example, a student doesn’t like a decision a FI has made about their readiness to work individually with a client
24 When the filed instructor initiates a discussion about the perceived injustice and demonstrates how such a topic can be handled productively, it can provide an important learning experience about how to address inequities.
25 Engage the student in a dialogue about his/her reaction to the FI, including their experiences of power differential in supervision. This makes it easer to take next step of discussing how power, privilege, oppression influences students work with clientsTake a minute to think of some examples from your practice experience. How have power differential dynamics between FIs and students been addressed? (or not addressed?) What was the result?
26 Boundaries and Supervision From the beginning, discuss students’ expectations for educational supervisionClarify differences between therapy and supervisionBe willing to form a learning partnership by owning mistakes and struggles with studentsPresent the idea of cultural competence as a continuum of development: Everyone is a work in progress!Help students understand the positives in having a “beginners mind.”BoundariesExplores how to create effective and safe boundaries in the filed instructor/student relationshipFIs may avoid diversity issues because they fear that being direct and personal will be disrespectful of a student’s boundaries. Uncertainty and worry about possible repercussions keep FIs away from issues of cultural and social diversity. Therefore it’s important that FIs establish the norm of a willingness to draw appropriate boundaries rather than the norm of avoidance. (Avoidance can create the illusion of safety.)FIs need to be explicit about establishing boundaries for safety. If a student makes a racist comment, the FI needs to confront the behavior because it threatens the safety necessary for a productive supervisory relationship and, by extension, the safety of clients.FIs need to establish good boundaries with the school during the placement process, for example, if a student needs fluency in Spanish to be successful in the placement, but the student is not quite fluent—that will cause problems, so the FI needs to be clear about what is realistic for the agency, and thus the clients served.If a young Asian American female student is reluctant to share with an older Caucasian male FI, the FI needs to increase safety by exploring possible reasons, including the students’ cultural norms, concerns about evaluation, worries about saving face because of the FI’s judgment, a negative history with males, etc and demonstrate how boundaries are created when FIs take positions and are direct and personal in addressing differences related to diversity issues with students. Moreover, the ability to set limits and take stands is one of the skills students must have to combat racist attitudes and oppressive behaviors. When the FI models these boundary-setting behaviors, students are more likely to internalize the experience and draw on it in the future.
27 Exploring Dilemmas Groups of 3 or 4 List differences between yourselves and your students or between your students and their clients. Describe the experiences you have had in addressing these differences with students. Describe the dilemmas/challenges and how you handled them.Exploring DilemmasGroups of 3 or 4List differences between yourselves and your students or between your students and their clients.Describe the experiences you have had in addressing these differences with students.Describe the dilemmas/challenges and how you handled them.Comment on the following themes:ImpotenceFear of consequencesAnger and frustrationLack of boundariesPossible parallel processes for students and their clientsSolicit group problem solving: Generate a list (Lorraine?) for increasing cultural competence and write them down on a poster sheet.
28 What specific assignments, readings or cultural events have you provided in order to increase cultural competence?(For example, seeing the film The Laramie Project, which is a true story of the murder of Matthew Shepherd, a young gay man from Laramie, Wyoming, or assigning “Why are all the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?”In the future, what materials could you use to increase this awareness? What untapped resources could be used?
29 What ideas for increasing cultural competence did you discuss?
30 Next Steps Future training sessions (review) Readings and resources Closing commentsEvaluation