Performance Management Process Cascade Strategy Business Plan Dept/team plan Individual
Task What is the purpose of performance appraisal???
Why Bother…? Provides feedback to employees Determines promotion Encourages improvement Encourages superior performance Sets and Measures Goals Improves Overall Organisational Performance
Why Bother…? Encourages Coaching and Mentoring Supports People Planning and Succession Planning Determines Individual Training and Development Needs Determines Organisational Training and Development Needs Confirms Good Hiring Decisions
Group Exercise Why Does Appraisal Sometimes Not Work?
I’ve Got Better Things To Do… 8 x 5 x 50 = 2000 1 + 1+ 1 + 3 = 6 6%2000 = 0.3
Issues with Appraisal… Too complex Poor explained Poor preparation and information gathering Bias Judging, blaming and settling scores It’s Done On You… Constant interruptions, no privacy Actions not followed through
Issues with Appraisal… No Ownership Adverse Impact Scarce Rewards Personal Reflection Equal Opps Terror It’s a Chore
Individual Review – Does it Add Up? Criticism = 0 Praise = Little +ve or –ve Effect Specific Goals = Best Performance Defensiveness = Inferior Performance Coaching = Ongoing Development Review and Salary Review Don’t Go Together Employee Participation = Good Source: McGregor and Drucker
Performance Planning (1) Performance Planning… is …Agreeing What The Job Is
Performance Planning (1) 4 Key Objectives: 1.Agree Individual’s Key Job Responsibilities 2.Common Understanding Of RESULTS To Be Achieved 3.Identify BEHAVIOURS That Individual Must Display 4.Create Appropriate Individual Development Plan
Performance Planning (1) Job Performance Comprises: ELEMENTFOCUS RESULTS What The Individual Achieved: Quantity Quality Cost Timeliness BEHAVIOURS How The Individual Performed: Knowledge Attitudes Skills Habits
Performance Planning (1) Ob-jec-tive (ob-j.k’t.v) adjective 1:Of or having to do with a material object. 2:Having actual existence or reality. 3 a:Uninfluenced by emotions or personal predjudices: an objective critic b: Based on observable phenomena; presented factually: an objective appraisal. Source: Collins English Dictionary
Performance Planning (1) The Three Tests of Management Objectivity: There Is A Clear Standard Manager Is Trained And Experienced Manager Acts With Integrity
Performance Planning (1) Sources of Goals / Objectives: Organisation’s Vision Objectives From Previous Review Critical Job Responsibilities Manager’s Objectives Departmental / Team Plans
Performance Execution (2) Performance Execution… is …Getting The Job Done
Performance Execution (2) Can People Be Motivated…?
Performance Execution (2) JOB SATISFACTION Recognition Achievement Freedom/Discretion/Autonomy Learning and Growth Challenge The Work Itself JOB DISSATISFACTION Job Security Benefits Working Conditions Pay Supervision Company Policies and Procedures HIGH LOW
Performance Execution (2) Creating Conditions That Motivate… Provide Opportunities For Achievement And Accomplishment Allow People Freedom, Discretion And Autonomy In Doing Their Job Increase The Amount Of Challenge Make Sure Work Is Varied And Interesting Provide Recognition
Performance Execution (2) Group Exercise: How Can Managers Recognise Good Performance?
Performance Execution (2) Recognising Good Performance… A Sincere Thank You Asking Employee Advice Eating Lunch Together Providing More Desirable Work Writing To Your Boss About Employee Extended Lunch Forwarding Newspaper / Magazine Article Giving Out Advance Copies Of Company Material
Performance Execution (2) Recognising Good Performance… Arranging For Employee Business Cards Writing A Quick Thanks On A Post-It Introducing Employee To Visitors And Explaining The Contribution They Make Writing A Favourable Memo And Filing It In Personnel File
Performance Assessment (3) Performance Assessment… is …Evaluating How The Job Has Been Done
Performance Assessment (3) Bias - Sources Halo/horns effect - One accomplishment colours judgement on other accomplishments Personality theories - One trait colours judgement of other traits Biased sampling- Looking only at recent performance Attributional error - Not looking at contribution of external circumstances Similar/different to me effect - favouritism Assumptions - about age, gender, education, social background, race etc
Performance Assessment (3) Bias - Overcoming it Examine you own beliefs, attitudes and prejudices Do not ‘shoot first ask questions later’ Try to see things from another perspective Ask politely and directly if you do not understand something Keep an open mind Be willing to learn Be willing to be proved wrong
Performance Review (4) Performance Review… is …Discussing How The Employee Has Done
Performance Review (4) Skills Asking questions that raise awareness Observing and listening Providing constructive feedback Being constructively challenging Receiving constructive feedback Controlling own feelings and reactions Influencing, negotiating, persuading Agreeing and setting goals The coach may also need technical expertise and experience.
Performance Review (4) Attitudes To get the best out of people the manager must: Believe in their ability to learn, grow and improve Support and encourage people to develop achieve their potential Help them overcome self-limiting beliefs and attitudes Trust people and be trustworthy
Performance Review (4) Style Interested Objective Supportive Empathetic Perceptive Aware Self-aware Patient l Sense of humour and perspective
Performance Review (4) Approaches 1 - Tell and sell Consistent with an authoritarian view of management. Manager explains and defends a previously thought out position Person is passive recipient rather than active participant(Review is done-to person rather than done-with.) Induces defensiveness and dependence in the reviewee and reluctance to accept follow- up actions No dialogue or rapport. Manager learns nothing and does not enhance relationship
Performance Review (4) Approaches 2 - Tell and listen Manager explains a previously thought out position, but invites comment Better than “tell and sell” but is still doing-to people rather than doing-with Defensiveness, dependence, lack of commitment to actions still likely Judgmental element means no real rapport established
Performance Review (4) Approaches 3 - Coaching Person is encouraged to identify and discuss problem areas and to offer potential solutions Person is active participant Agreed actions emerge through discussion Forward looking, action oriented and developmental Builds rapport and shared understanding of priorities and problems Generates commitment to actions and motivation to achieve them
Performance Review (4) Approaches 4 - Passive Manager’s aim is to be popular, and/or avoid any kind of conflict or disagreement Manager lets reviewee direct and control the discussion Can turn into a counselling session or a moaning session Unrealistic promises may be made.
Exercise Examine the Appraisal process. Define the key things to consider at the following stages: the planning required before the discussion the discussion itself after the discussion
Before the Appraisal discussion… Explain the process ‘Fit’ to performance management Self-appraisal Think about examples… Think about potential outcomes Prepare question plan Room / Timing / Interruptions Conflict with other work
During the Appraisal discussion… Establish a rapport Establish a purpose Revisit historical targets/goals Analyse current performance Explore options Summarise regularly Agree implementation plan
After the Appraisal discussion… Ownership of training and development Analyse trends Company wide training plan Follow up marginal performers Link into performance management process
Performance Review (4) Questions - Do Ask clear, concise and specific questions Always acknowledge answers positively Probe, when you need to, for extra information Give answers real consideration before replying; a pause will often show that you have done so. Use questions to raise self-awareness, for example; “How did you feel when you did that”.” If people are wandering off-track ask ‘In what way does that relate to the problem’ Ask: What action have you taken so far. What were the effects of this action. Try and understand the person’s reasons Stay silent after asking a question
Performance Review (4) Questions - Don’t Ask long-winded questions or use complex or inappropriate language or jargon Ask leading or loaded questions; show that you think you already know. Ask trick questions – undermines trust, causes resentment and de-motivation Cut people off mid-sentence with some advice or another question Use questions as if in a courtroom, to steer them to your point of view. Be side-tracked by interesting answers that are not relevant to the issue you are dealing with. Point out the lack of action, or its inadequacy. Rush people, blether on, or answer your own question
Performance Review (4) Listening - Do Maintain eye contact Make encouraging noises and nod when appropriate. Let people express themselves in their own words Make only brief notes Actively concentrate and seek to understand what the person is saying Reflect back your understanding of what the person has said. Ask relevant supplementary questions Acknowledge understanding of what has been said Listen fully and empathetically Give the person time to think and speak. Tolerate reasonable silences.
Performance Review (4) Listening - Don’t Look away or look disinterested Argue, interrupt or make negative comments or gestures Finish people’s sentences Make long detailed notes Be thinking about your next question or comment Twist people’s words and feed them back to reinforce your own point of view Make judgmental statements, leap to conclusions or give unnecessary advice Show blame, irritation, get aggressive or defensive about what you hear Ignore comments, ideas and feelings Rush people, or leap in with statements, opinions or additional questions.
Performance Review (4) Words, Tone of Voice, Body Language Content (the words) Tone (volume, pitch and intonation) Body language (movements, posture, facial expressions) If the words are saying one thing and the body is saying another, the body is more likely to indicate the true feelings
Performance Review (4) Words - Do and Don’t Choose words carefully Be specific Be clear Attack the problem Balance positives and negatives Be tactless, critical or punishing Be vague or general Do not talk around the point Attack the person Talk only about failures and shortcomings
Performance Review (4) Tone of voice - Do and Don’t Be upbeat Maintain an even volume and pace Maintain an even tone Adopt a friendly tone Talk in a downbeat monotone Shout or mumble Betray irritation, impatience or upset Adopt an aggressive tone