5Washington’s Headaches Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral].State/colony loyalties.Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army.Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.
6Military Strategies The Americans The British Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
7The Battle for New York August 1776 Seek to Control the ports for tradeWashington retreats to White Plains, NYBritish hold New York until end for war
9Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851 The Battle of Trenton
10The Battle of Trenton Washington’s Plan: 2,400 troops The entire Hessian force was capturedOnly 5 colonial soldiers killedAttacked and won Princeton – settled into Morristown, NJ for rest of winterhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KF-Y7s_YIAU
12British Counterattack a. September 1777 – Brandywine Creek and fall of Philadelphiac. October 1777, Battle of Germantownd. Retreat to Whitemarsh and then Valley Forge
13Counterattack Continued The Northern Campaign Plan – Burgoyne on the move!a. Plan is for Burgoyne and Col. Barry St. Leger to attack South from Canada while Howe attacks North from NYb. American’s retreat slows Burgoynec. Burgoyne’s desperation and mistakes helps America
14Saratoga-Sept/Oct, 1777 “Turning Point” of the War Burgoyne Gates,Biggest American victory thus farFeb France formal allianceSupplies, troops, money, and NAVY from French
15More Foreign Allies Spain joined war as France’s ally Netherlands (1780)c. Prior to formal allianceMarquis de Lafayette-FranceJohann de Kalb-PrussiaThaddeus Kosciusko-PolandFriedrich Von Steuben-PrussiaBernardo de Galvez-Spain
16Washington’s Hardships during War Horrible winter at Valley Forgesheer determinationof Americans to fight at all costsLack of financial support fromCongressBritish blockade – economic distressInflation hurt the American colonists’ability to buy goodshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtb9W3mPVtEhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iu_-0DjIJc
17Fighting Turns WestHowe abandons Philadelphia, heads north, Battle of MonmouthHeavy casualtiesMajor defeat for HoweAmerican Colonel George Rogers ClarkHelps capture Brit. Posts in Indiana and ILFeb. 1779, Clark gets Native American help to take Fort Vicennes in IndianaVictory strengthens claims to Ohio River ValleyAmerican General Nathaniel Greene takes over command in the South
18Phase III: The Southern Strategy [beginning in 1779 and for the next 3 years]
20Britain’s “Southern Strategy” Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South.British Royal Navy seize Savannah, GA, and Charleston, SCSouthern Phase vicious – Americans pitted against AmericansGuerilla Warfare“We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again”The “Swamp Fox”Daniel Morgan
21The Battle of Yorktown (1781) RochambeauAdmiral De Grasse
22The Battle of Yorktown Washington and Rochambeau French Navy with Adm. De GrasseEarly October 1781, Washington, Rochambeau, and Lafayette meet up, and besiege Cornwallis on October 2nd.De Grasse's naval forces turned back British ships coming to Cornwallis's rescue and thereby prevented Cornwallis's escape or his reinforcement.
23Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown October 19, 1781 “The World Turned Upside Down!”Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
24The American Rattlesnake Two Armies I’ve thus Burgoyn’d and room for more I’ve got behindAn apartment to let for military gentlemenBritons within the Yankeean Plains , Mind how ye March and Trench, The Serpent in the Congress reigns, as well as in the French!
26The Treaty of Paris 1. England recognized American independence 2. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River3. Mississippi R. became western border b/w4. Navigation on river was open to Americans and British citizens5. Florida was returned to Spain and the border between Florida and America was set6. Britain removed all troops from American territory7. Congress pledged to recommend to states that rights/property of Loyalists be restored
28New Problems to deal with Washington resigned from the army and gave command over to CongressMost Americans saw themselves as individual states, not a unified nation* Federalist vs. Anti-federalistWithout a strong central government and no one left to handle the debt America was in50 million in debtStates did not feel they had to pay off a “national debt”