Presentation on theme: "Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776] Trying to get Canada to support the American cause Ethan Allen Benedict Arnold Henry Knox."— Presentation transcript:
Phase I: The Northern Campaign [ ] Trying to get Canada to support the American cause Ethan Allen Benedict Arnold Henry Knox
Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Washington’s Headaches Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. State/colony loyalties. Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army. Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.
Military Strategies Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. The AmericansThe British Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
The Battle for New York August 1776August 1776 Seek to Control the ports for tradeSeek to Control the ports for trade Washington retreats to White Plains, NYWashington retreats to White Plains, NY British hold New York until end for warBritish hold New York until end for war
New York City in Flames (1776)
Washington Crossing the Delaware Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
The Battle of Trenton The Battle of Trenton Washington’s Plan:Washington’s Plan: 2,400 troops 2,400 troops The entire Hessian force was captured entire Hessian force was captured Only 5 colonial soldiers killedOnly 5 colonial soldiers killed Attacked and won Princeton – settled into Morristown, NJ for rest of winterAttacked and won Princeton – settled into Morristown, NJ for rest of winter https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=KF-Y7s_YIAU
Phase II: NY & PA [ ]
British Counterattack a. September 1777 – Brandywine Creek and fall of Philadelphia c. October 1777, Battle of Germantown d. Retreat to Whitemarsh and then Valley Forge
Counterattack Continued The Northern Campaign Plan – Burgoyne on the move!The Northern Campaign Plan – Burgoyne on the move! a. Plan is for Burgoyne and Col. Barry St. Leger to attack South from Canada while Howe attacks North from NY Plan b. American’s retreat slows Burgoyne c. Burgoyne’s desperation and mistakes helps America
Saratoga-Sept/Oct, 1777 “Turning Point” of the War Saratoga-Sept/Oct, 1777 “Turning Point” of the War 1.Burgoyne Gates, Gates 2.Biggest American victory thus far Biggest American victory thus farBiggest American victory thus far 3.Feb France formal alliance 4.Supplies, troops, money, and NAVY from French
More Foreign Allies a.Spain joined war as France’s ally b.Netherlands (1780) c. Prior to formal alliance –Marquis de Lafayette-France –Johann de Kalb-Prussia –Thaddeus Kosciusko-Poland –Friedrich Von Steuben-Prussia –Bernardo de Galvez-Spain
Washington’s Hardships during War Horrible winter at Valley ForgeHorrible winter at Valley ForgeValley ForgeValley Forge sheer determinationsheer determination of Americans to fight at all costs of Americans to fight at all costs Lack of financial support fromLack of financial support from Congress Congress British blockade – economic distressBritish blockade – economic distress Inflation hurt the American colonists’Inflation hurt the American colonists’ ability to buy goods ability to buy goods https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=wtb9W3mPVtE https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=3iu_-0DjIJc
Fighting Turns West Howe abandons Philadelphia, heads north, Battle of MonmouthHowe abandons Philadelphia, heads north, Battle of Monmouth –Heavy casualties –Major defeat for Howe American Colonel George Rogers ClarkAmerican Colonel George Rogers ClarkColonel George Rogers ClarkColonel George Rogers Clark –Helps capture Brit. Posts in Indiana and IL –Feb. 1779, Clark gets Native American help to take Fort Vicennes in Indiana –Victory strengthens claims to Ohio River Valley –American General Nathaniel Greene takes over command in the South
Phase III: The Southern Strategy [beginning in 1779 and for the next 3 years]
Britain’s “Southern Strategy” Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. British Royal Navy seize Savannah, GA, and Charleston, SC Southern Phase vicious – Americans pitted against Americans The “Swamp Fox” “We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again” Guerilla Warfare Daniel Morgan
The Battle of Yorktown The Battle of Yorktown (1781) The Battle of Yorktown Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse
The Battle of Yorktown Yorktown Washington and RochambeauWashington and Rochambeau French Navy with Adm. De GrasseFrench Navy with Adm. De Grasse Early October 1781, Washington, Rochambeau, and Lafayette meet up, and besiege Cornwallis on October 2 nd.Early October 1781, Washington, Rochambeau, and Lafayette meet up, and besiege Cornwallis on October 2 nd. De Grasse's naval forces turned back British ships coming to Cornwallis's rescue and thereby prevented Cornwallis's escape or his reinforcement.De Grasse's naval forces turned back British ships coming to Cornwallis's rescue and thereby prevented Cornwallis's escape or his reinforcement.
Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown October 19, 1781 Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 “The World Turned Upside Down!”
The American Rattlesnake An apartment to let for military gentlemen Two Armies I’ve thus Burgoyn’d and room for more I’ve got behind Britons within the Yankeean Plains, Mind how ye March and Trench, The Serpent in the Congress reigns, as well as in the French!
The Treaty of Paris 1. England recognized American independence 2. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River 3. Mississippi R. became western border b/w 4. Navigation on river was open to Americans and British citizens 5. Florida was returned to Spain and the border between Florida and America was set 6. Britain removed all troops from American territory 7. Congress pledged to recommend to states that rights/property of Loyalists be restored
North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
New Problems to deal with 1.Washington resigned from the army and gave command over to Congress 2.Most Americans saw themselves as individual states, not a unified nation * Federalist vs. Anti-federalist 3.Without a strong central government and no one left to handle the debt America was in 50 million in debt50 million in debt States did not feel they had to pay off a “national debt”States did not feel they had to pay off a “national debt”
Wholesale Price Index:
Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the War