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The American Revolution: 1775-1783.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution: 1775-1783."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Revolution:

2 Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]
Ethan Allen Benedict Arnold Henry Knox Trying to get Canada to support the American cause

3 The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties.

4 Loyalist Strongholds

5 Washington’s Headaches
Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. State/colony loyalties. Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army. Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.

6 Military Strategies The Americans The British
Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.

7 The Battle for New York August 1776
Seek to Control the ports for trade Washington retreats to White Plains, NY British hold New York until end for war

8 New York City in Flames (1776)

9 Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
The Battle of Trenton

10 The Battle of Trenton Washington’s Plan: 2,400 troops
The entire Hessian force was captured Only 5 colonial soldiers killed Attacked and won Princeton – settled into Morristown, NJ for rest of winter

11 Phase II: NY & PA [ ]

12 British Counterattack
a. September 1777 – Brandywine Creek and fall of Philadelphia c. October 1777, Battle of Germantown d. Retreat to Whitemarsh and then Valley Forge

13 Counterattack Continued
The Northern Campaign Plan – Burgoyne on the move! a. Plan is for Burgoyne and Col. Barry St. Leger to attack South from Canada while Howe attacks North from NY b. American’s retreat slows Burgoyne c. Burgoyne’s desperation and mistakes helps America

14 Saratoga-Sept/Oct, 1777 “Turning Point” of the War
Burgoyne Gates, Biggest American victory thus far Feb France formal alliance Supplies, troops, money, and NAVY from French

15 More Foreign Allies Spain joined war as France’s ally
Netherlands (1780) c. Prior to formal alliance Marquis de Lafayette-France Johann de Kalb-Prussia Thaddeus Kosciusko-Poland Friedrich Von Steuben-Prussia Bernardo de Galvez-Spain

16 Washington’s Hardships during War
Horrible winter at Valley Forge sheer determination of Americans to fight at all costs Lack of financial support from Congress British blockade – economic distress Inflation hurt the American colonists’ ability to buy goods

17 Fighting Turns West Howe abandons Philadelphia, heads north, Battle of Monmouth Heavy casualties Major defeat for Howe American Colonel George Rogers Clark Helps capture Brit. Posts in Indiana and IL Feb. 1779, Clark gets Native American help to take Fort Vicennes in Indiana Victory strengthens claims to Ohio River Valley American General Nathaniel Greene takes over command in the South

18 Phase III: The Southern Strategy [beginning in 1779 and for the next 3 years]

19 Loyalist Strongholds

20 Britain’s “Southern Strategy”
Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. British Royal Navy seize Savannah, GA, and Charleston, SC Southern Phase vicious – Americans pitted against Americans Guerilla Warfare “We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again” The “Swamp Fox” Daniel Morgan

21 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse

22 The Battle of Yorktown Washington and Rochambeau
French Navy with Adm. De Grasse Early October 1781, Washington, Rochambeau, and Lafayette meet up, and besiege Cornwallis on October 2nd. De Grasse's naval forces turned back British ships coming to Cornwallis's rescue and thereby prevented Cornwallis's escape or his reinforcement.

23 Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown October 19, 1781
“The World Turned Upside Down!” Painted by John Trumbull, 1797

24 The American Rattlesnake
Two Armies I’ve thus Burgoyn’d and room for more I’ve got behind An apartment to let for military gentlemen Britons within the Yankeean Plains , Mind how ye March and Trench, The Serpent in the Congress reigns, as well as in the French!

25 What did the British Lose???

26 The Treaty of Paris 1. England recognized American independence
2. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River 3. Mississippi R. became western border b/w 4. Navigation on river was open to Americans and British citizens 5. Florida was returned to Spain and the border between Florida and America was set 6. Britain removed all troops from American territory 7. Congress pledged to recommend to states that rights/property of Loyalists be restored

27 North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783

28 New Problems to deal with
Washington resigned from the army and gave command over to Congress Most Americans saw themselves as individual states, not a unified nation * Federalist vs. Anti-federalist Without a strong central government and no one left to handle the debt America was in 50 million in debt States did not feel they had to pay off a “national debt”

29 Wholesale Price Index: 1770-1789

30 Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the War

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