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The American Revolution: 1775-1781.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution: 1775-1781."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Revolution:

2 Opposing Sides Britain Americans Advantages ? Disadvantages

3 Opposing Sides By mid August of 1776, 32,000 British troops had arrived Controlled by William Howe Continental Army=230,000 Rarely had more than 20,000 at a time

4 Opposing Sides Paying for the war became a problem for colonies
Continental Congress couldn’t tax Robert Morris helped fund the Cont. Army Setup loans and helped establish the Bank of North America to help finance the military

5 Military Strategies The Americans The British
Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war  you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.

6 Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]

7 Crown Point

8 Capturing of Fort Ticonderoga

9 Fort Ticonderoga 1775

10 Fort Ticonderoga

11 Battle of Quebec 1775

12 Battle of Quebec 1775

13 Phase II: NY & PA [ ]

14 The Northern Campaign [1777-1778]
Britain wanted to take New York City to crush the will of the colonial rebels Continental Congress asked George Washington to defend NYC Troops were inexperienced so the British easily took NYC Washington and his troops retreated Nathan Hale=U.S. spy was captured and hanged “ I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country” British established NYC as their headquarters for the rest of the war

15 New York City in Flames (1776)

16 Crossing the Delaware Battle of White Plains
Washington is forced to retreat again British heads toward Philadelphia/ instead of following retreating colonial forces Washington reaches Penn.=British had stopped their advance and est. winter quarters in N.J. On Dec. 25, 1776, Washington led 2,400 troops across the icy Delaware River Won two small victories at Trenton and Princeton SETTLED IN HILLS OF N.J. FOR WINTER

17 Battle of White Plains

18 Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851

19 Battle of Trenton

20 Battle of Trenton

21 Battle of Trenton

22 Battle of Princeton

23 Battle of Princeton

24 Battle of Princeton

25 Philadelphia Falls Gen. John Burgoyne devised a three-pronged attack of New York (March 1777) Attack NY from the North, South, and West Wasn’t carried out In Spring of 1777, Gen. Howe took 13,000 troops and attacked Philadelphia from the South (Maryland) Defeated Washington at the Battle of Brandywine Creek Captured Philadelphia Continental Congress escaped and Howe failed to destroy C.A. Retreated to VALLEY FORGE

26 Battle of Brandywine Creek


28 Valley Forge

29 Valley Forge

30 Valley Forge

31 Valley Forge

32 Valley Forge Bitter cold and food shortages killed nearly 2,500 men
Two European military officers joined Washington and helped improve discipline and boost morale Marquis de Lafayette (France) Baron Friedrich von Steuben (Prussia)

33 France Enters the War Gen. Burgoyne in June of 1777, attacks New York from the North (Quebec) with 8,000 troops 800 British troops and 1,000 Iroquois attacked Albany from the east=defeated by Benedict Arnold He won a few early victories but were unable to defeat Americans in upper NY With his supplies dwindling and him being unable to defeat the militia Surrendered at Saratoga Turning point of the WAR!!!!!!

34 A modern-day re-enactment
Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War? A modern-day re-enactment

35 Saratoga

36 Saratoga

37 Saratoga

38 War in the West In 1778, George Rogers Clark took 175 troops down the Ohio River and captured several towns Gave Americans control of the region Various Indian Groups joined w/ British and fought against the Americans Most suffered defeats and had villages and towns destroyed

39 France Enters the War France and Spain had been sending weapons to the Americans U.S. now wanted troops from France French didn’t want to get involved until they new the Americans could win Battle of Saratoga Victory=French alliance w/ U.S. Feb.6, 1778, U.S. signed two treaties 1st France recognizes U.S. as an independent nation 2nd Alliance b/w France and U.S.

40 War at Sea American ships attacked British merchant ships=disrupt trade Congress issued letters of marque=licenses to private ships authorizing them to attack merchant ships (Brit.) Seized millions of dollars of cargo Most famous naval battle= John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard vs. Serapis and Countess of Scarbrough, Sept. 1779 Jones “I have not yet begun to fight.” 3hrs of fighting=British surrendered

41 Bonhomme Richard vs. Serapis and Countess of Scarbrough, Sept. 1779

42 Bonhomme Richard vs. Serapis and Countess of Scarbrough, Sept. 1779

43 John Paul Jones “I have not yet begun to fight.”

44 Phase III: The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]

45 Britain’s “Southern Strategy”
Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving. The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!] Good US General: Nathanial Greene

46 The Southern Campaign British defeat at Saratoga=Gen. Howe resigned
Replaced by Sir Henry Clinton In Dec. 1778, British captured Savannah, GA Gen. Clinton the attacks Charles Town, SC About 14,000 troops surround the city On May 12, 1780, Americans surrendered 5,500 Americans captured=biggest defeat

47 The Southern Campaign Upset the “over-the-mountain” men, put together a militia Battle of Kings Mountain Defeated Ferguson and destroyed his army Turning point of Southern Campaign Gen. Nathaniel Greene Hoped to wear down British while militia destroyed supply lines Carried out hit-in-run raids against British camps and supply wagons Francis Marion “Swamp Fox”=leader of most famous militia

48 Nathaniel Greene

49 Battle of King’s Mountain

50 Battle of King’s Mountain

51 The Southern Campaign In Spring of 1781, Gen. Cornwallis decided to invade VA Linked up w/ Benedict Arnold’s (traitor) forces Began to conquer VA In June 1781, Americans led by Gen. Anthony Wayne forced Cornwallis to retreat to Yorktown Cornwallis wanted to protect supplies and maintain communications by sea

52 The Southern Campaign Washington and Rochambeau rushed to VA
French fleet was arriving from the Caribbean On Sept. 28, 1781, American and French forces surrounded Yorktown On Oct. 14 Alexander Hamilton captured key British defenses On Oct. 19, 1781, Gen. Cornwallis and 8,000 British troops surrendered END OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

53 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse

54 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)

55 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)


57 Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown:
“The World Turned Upside Down!” Painted by John Trumbull, 1797

58 Why did the British Lose???

59 Reasons for American Success
Americans were more motivated British were overconfident Time was on the side of the Americans Americans fought along side the British's most hated rival the French

60 North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783

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