3 Opposing SidesBy mid August of 1776, 32,000 British troops had arrivedControlled by William HoweContinental Army=230,000Rarely had more than 20,000 at a time
4 Opposing Sides Paying for the war became a problem for colonies Continental Congress couldn’t taxRobert Morris helped fund the Cont. ArmySetup loans and helped establish the Bank of North America to help finance the military
5 Military Strategies The Americans The British Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
14 The Northern Campaign [1777-1778] Britain wanted to take New York City to crush the will of the colonial rebelsContinental Congress asked George Washington to defend NYCTroops were inexperienced so the British easily took NYCWashington and his troops retreatedNathan Hale=U.S. spy was captured and hanged “ I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country”British established NYC as their headquarters for the rest of the war
16 Crossing the Delaware Battle of White Plains Washington is forced to retreat againBritish heads toward Philadelphia/ instead of following retreating colonial forcesWashington reaches Penn.=British had stopped their advance and est. winter quarters in N.J.On Dec. 25, 1776, Washington led 2,400 troops across the icy Delaware RiverWon two small victories at Trenton and PrincetonSETTLED IN HILLS OF N.J. FOR WINTER
25 Philadelphia FallsGen. John Burgoyne devised a three-pronged attack of New York (March 1777)Attack NY from the North, South, and WestWasn’t carried outIn Spring of 1777, Gen. Howe took 13,000 troops and attacked Philadelphia from the South (Maryland)Defeated Washington at the Battle of Brandywine CreekCaptured PhiladelphiaContinental Congress escaped and Howe failed to destroy C.A.Retreated to VALLEY FORGE
32 Valley Forge Bitter cold and food shortages killed nearly 2,500 men Two European military officers joined Washington and helped improve discipline and boost moraleMarquis de Lafayette (France)Baron Friedrich von Steuben (Prussia)
33 France Enters the WarGen. Burgoyne in June of 1777, attacks New York from the North (Quebec) with 8,000 troops800 British troops and 1,000 Iroquois attacked Albany from the east=defeated by Benedict ArnoldHe won a few early victories but were unable to defeat Americans in upper NYWith his supplies dwindling and him being unable to defeat the militiaSurrendered at SaratogaTurning point of the WAR!!!!!!
34 A modern-day re-enactment Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War?A modern-day re-enactment
38 War in the WestIn 1778, George Rogers Clark took 175 troops down the Ohio River and captured several townsGave Americans control of the regionVarious Indian Groups joined w/ British and fought against the AmericansMost suffered defeats and had villages and towns destroyed
39 France Enters the WarFrance and Spain had been sending weapons to the AmericansU.S. now wanted troops from FranceFrench didn’t want to get involved until they new the Americans could winBattle of Saratoga Victory=French alliance w/ U.S.Feb.6, 1778, U.S. signed two treaties1st France recognizes U.S. as an independent nation2nd Alliance b/w France and U.S.
40 War at SeaAmerican ships attacked British merchant ships=disrupt tradeCongress issued letters of marque=licenses to private ships authorizing them to attack merchant ships (Brit.)Seized millions of dollars of cargoMost famous naval battle= John Paul Jones Bonhomme Richard vs. Serapis and Countess of Scarbrough, Sept. 1779Jones “I have not yet begun to fight.”3hrs of fighting=British surrendered
41 Bonhomme Richard vs. Serapis and Countess of Scarbrough, Sept. 1779
42 Bonhomme Richard vs. Serapis and Countess of Scarbrough, Sept. 1779
43 John Paul Jones“I have not yet begun to fight.”
45 Britain’s “Southern Strategy” Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South.Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving.The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!]Good US General: Nathanial Greene
46 The Southern Campaign British defeat at Saratoga=Gen. Howe resigned Replaced by Sir Henry ClintonIn Dec. 1778, British captured Savannah, GAGen. Clinton the attacks Charles Town, SCAbout 14,000 troops surround the cityOn May 12, 1780, Americans surrendered5,500 Americans captured=biggest defeat
47 The Southern CampaignUpset the “over-the-mountain” men, put together a militiaBattle of Kings MountainDefeated Ferguson and destroyed his armyTurning point of Southern CampaignGen. Nathaniel GreeneHoped to wear down British while militia destroyed supply linesCarried out hit-in-run raids against British camps and supply wagonsFrancis Marion “Swamp Fox”=leader of most famous militia
51 The Southern CampaignIn Spring of 1781, Gen. Cornwallis decided to invade VALinked up w/ Benedict Arnold’s (traitor) forcesBegan to conquer VAIn June 1781, Americans led by Gen. Anthony Wayne forced Cornwallis to retreat to YorktownCornwallis wanted to protect supplies and maintain communications by sea
52 The Southern Campaign Washington and Rochambeau rushed to VA French fleet was arriving from the CaribbeanOn Sept. 28, 1781, American and French forces surrounded YorktownOn Oct. 14 Alexander Hamilton captured key British defensesOn Oct. 19, 1781, Gen. Cornwallis and 8,000 British troops surrenderedEND OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
53 The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de RochambeauAdmiral De Grasse
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