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Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ).

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Presentation on theme: "Information and Communication Technology ( ICT )."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information and Communication Technology ( ICT )

2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A.Brief History of Computer Brief History of ComputerBrief History of Computer B.Early Developments in Electronic Data Processing Early Developments in Electronic Data ProcessingEarly Developments in Electronic Data Processing C.Computer Generations Computer GenerationsComputer Generations

3 Objectives: To be familiar with the history, and the developments of computing devices.

4 THE EARLIEST COMPUTING DEVICES Brief History of Computer

5 The earliest data processing equipment were all manual - mechanical devices due to the absence of electricity and adequate industrial technology.

6 ABACUS ( 300 B.C. by the Babylonians ) The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations. Its only value is that it aids the memory of the human performing the calculation.The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations. Its only value is that it aids the memory of the human performing the calculation.

7 A very old Abacus

8 ABACUS A more modern abacus. Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands. A more modern abacus. Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands.

9 John Napier ( 1550 – 1617 ) John Napier is best known as the inventor of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napier's birthplace, Merchiston Tower in Edinburgh, Scotland, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh Napier University. After his death from the effects of gout, Napier's remains were buried in St Cuthbert's Church, Edinburgh.

10 NAPIER'S BONES In 1617 an eccentric Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms, which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand, which was originally obtained from a printed table. But Napier also invented an alternative to tables, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks.

11 An original set of Napier's Bones [photo courtesy IBM]

12 A more modern set of Napier's Bones

13 William Oughtred ’s Slide Rule William Oughtred and others developed the slide rule in the 17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms by John Napier.

14 Slide Rule

15 TRIVIA!!!! Napier's invention led directly to the slide rule, first built in England in 1632 and still in use in the 1960's by the NASA engineers of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs which landed men on the moon.

16 Blaise Pascal In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at the age of 19, he invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. Pascal built 50 of this gear-driven one- function calculator (it could only add) but couldn't sell many because of their exorbitant cost and because they really weren't that accurate (at that time it was not possible to fabricate gears with the required precision).

17 Pascaline or Pascal Calculator It can be called “Arithmatique Machine” The first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used. It was designed and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between 1642 and It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating its dials.

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19 A 6 digit model for those who couldn't afford the 8 digit model

20 A Pascaline opened up so you can observe the gears and cylinders which rotated to display the numerical result

21 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) A German mathematician and philosopher. He occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

22 Stepped Reckoner The Step Reckoner (or Stepped Reckoner) was a digital mechanical calculator invented by German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and completed in 1694.

23 Stepped Reckoner

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25 Joseph Marie Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834) A French weaver and merchant. He played an important role in the development of the earliest programmable loom (the "Jacquard loom"), which in turn played an important role in the development of other programmable machines, such as computers.

26 The Jacquard Loom A mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelasse. The loom was controlled by a "chain of cards", a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence.A mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, first demonstrated in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelasse. The loom was controlled by a "chain of cards", a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence.

27 Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards

28 By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern

29 A close-up of a Jacquard card

30 This tapestry was woven by a Jacquard loom

31 Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage was proposing a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the Difference Engine. This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers, such as logarithm tables.

32 Babbage’s Differential Engine Designed to automate a standard procedure for calculating roots of polynomials

33 A small section of the type of mechanism employed in Babbage's Difference Engine

34 The Analytical Engine It was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician Charles Babbage.It was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician Charles Babbage.

35 Babbage’s Analytical Engine 2 main parts: the “Store” where numbers are held and the “Mill” where they were woven into new results 2 main parts: the “Store” where numbers are held and the “Mill” where they were woven into new results

36 Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first Algorithm intended to be processed by a machine. Because of this, she is often described as the world's first computer programmer. Referred to as the “First Programmer”

37 Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) An American statistician and inventor who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. He was the founder of the Tabulating Machine Company that later merged to become IBM. Hollerith is widely regarded as the father of modern automatic computation.

38 Hollerith machine

39 The first automatic data processing system. It was used to count the 1890 U.S. census. Developed by Herman Hollerith, a statistician who had worked for the Census Bureau, the system used a hand punch to record the data as holes in dollar-bill-sized punch cards and a tabulating machine to count them. The tabulating machine contained a spring-loaded pin for each potential hole in the card. When a card was placed in the reader and the handle was pushed down, the pins that passed through the holes closed electrical circuits causing counters to be incremented and a lid in the sorting box to open.

40 More Detail Each card was placed into this reader. When the handle was pushed down, the data registered on the analog dials.

41 Hollerith's Keypunch Machine All 62 million Americans were counted by punching holes into a card from the census forms.

42 What a Concept in 1891 Imagine. Using electricity to count. The date on this issue of "Electrical Engineer" was November 11, The page at the top is a census form filled out by a census taker.

43 High Tech, 1890 Style The beginning of data processing made the August 30, 1890 cover of Scientific American. The binary concept. A hole or no hole! (Image courtesy of Scientific American Magazine.)

44 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING

45 Mark I developed by Howard Aiken at Harvard University

46 Mark I Official name was Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Official name was Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Could perform the 4 basic arithmetic operations. Could perform the 4 basic arithmetic operations.

47 ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator developed by John Presper Eckert Jr. and John Mauchlydeveloped by John Presper Eckert Jr. and John Mauchly 1 st large-scale vacuum-tube computer1 st large-scale vacuum-tube computer

48 EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer Developed by John Von Neumann Developed by John Von Neumann a modified version of the ENIACa modified version of the ENIAC employed binary arithmeticemployed binary arithmetic has stored program capability has stored program capability

49 EDSAC Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator built by Maurice Wilkes during the year 1949 built by Maurice Wilkes during the year 1949 one of the first stored-program machine computers and one of the first to use binary digits one of the first stored-program machine computers and one of the first to use binary digits

50 UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer Developed by George Gray in Remington Rand Corp. Manufactured as the first commercially available first generation computer.

51 IBM International Business Machines By 1960, IBM was the dominant force in the market of large mainframe computers

52 IBM 650 built in the year 1953 by IBM and marked the dominance of IBM in the computer industry. built in the year 1953 by IBM and marked the dominance of IBM in the computer industry.

53 IBM 701 IBM’s 1st commercial business computer

54 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER

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59 FIRST GENERATION ( ) Vacuum tube basedVacuum tube based The use vacuum tubes in place of relays as a means of storing data in memory and the use of stored ‐ program concept.The use vacuum tubes in place of relays as a means of storing data in memory and the use of stored ‐ program concept. It requires 3.5 KW of electricity per day to keep the vacuum tubes runningIt requires 3.5 KW of electricity per day to keep the vacuum tubes running

60 Per Day : 3.5 KW Per Week : 24.5 KW Per Month : KW Per Year : 1,470 KW NAKAKALOKA!!

61 Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. But nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system.

62 WHO INVENT THE VACUUM TUBES? First invented by a British scientist named John A. Fleming in 1919, although Edison had made some dsicoveries while working on the lightbulb. The vacuum tube was improved by Lee DeForest.First invented by a British scientist named John A. Fleming in 1919, although Edison had made some dsicoveries while working on the lightbulb. The vacuum tube was improved by Lee DeForest.

63 Vacuum Tubes

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65 The main features of First Generation are: Vacuum tube technologyVacuum tube technology UnreliableUnreliable Supported Machine language onlySupported Machine language only Very costlyVery costly Generate lot of heatGenerate lot of heat Slow Input/Output deviceSlow Input/Output device Huge sizeHuge size Need of A.C.Need of A.C. Non-portableNon-portable Consumed lot of electricityConsumed lot of electricity

66 Some computers of this generation were: ENIACENIAC EDVACEDVAC UNIVACUNIVAC IBM-701IBM-701

67 SECOND GENERATION ( ) This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes.This generation using the transistor were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.In this generation, magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.

68 WHO INVENTED THE TRANSISTORS? The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories on December 16, 1947 by William Shockley (seated at Brattain's laboratory bench), John Bardeen (left) and Walter Brattain (right).The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories on December 16, 1947 by William Shockley (seated at Brattain's laboratory bench), John Bardeen (left) and Walter Brattain (right).

69 The main features of Second Generation are: Use of transistorsUse of transistors Reliable as compared to First generation computersReliable as compared to First generation computers Smaller size as compared to First generation computersSmaller size as compared to First generation computers Generate less heat as compared to First generation computersGenerate less heat as compared to First generation computers Consumed less electricity as compared to First generation computersConsumed less electricity as compared to First generation computers Faster than first generation computersFaster than first generation computers Still very costlyStill very costly A.C. neededA.C. needed Support machine and assembly languagesSupport machine and assembly languages

70 Some computers of this generation were: IBM 1620IBM 1620 IBM 7094IBM 7094 CDC 1604CDC 1604 CDC 3600CDC 3600 UNIVAC 1108UNIVAC 1108

71 THIRD GENERATION ( ) Integrated Circuits (IC's) in place of transistorsIntegrated Circuits (IC's) in place of transistors A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry.A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry. Integrated solid ‐ state circuitry, improved secondary storage devices and new input/output devices were the most important advances in this generation.Integrated solid ‐ state circuitry, improved secondary storage devices and new input/output devices were the most important advances in this generation.

72 The main features of Third Generation are: IC usedIC used More reliableMore reliable Smaller sizeSmaller size Generate less heatGenerate less heat FasterFaster Lesser maintenanceLesser maintenance Still costlyStill costly A.C. neededA.C. needed Consumed lesser electricityConsumed lesser electricity Support high-level languageSupport high-level language

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74 WHO INVENT THE IC? The idea of integrating electronic circuits into a single device was born, when the German physicist and engineer Werner Jacobi (de) developed and patented the first known integrated transistor amplifier in 1949 and the British radio engineer Geoffrey Dummer proposed to integrate a variety of standard electronic components in a monolithic semiconductor crystal in A year later, Harwick Johnson filed a patent for a prototype integrated circuit (IC).The idea of integrating electronic circuits into a single device was born, when the German physicist and engineer Werner Jacobi (de) developed and patented the first known integrated transistor amplifier in 1949 and the British radio engineer Geoffrey Dummer proposed to integrate a variety of standard electronic components in a monolithic semiconductor crystal in A year later, Harwick Johnson filed a patent for a prototype integrated circuit (IC).

75 Some computers of this generation were: IBM-360 seriesIBM-360 series Honeywell-6000 seriesHoneywell-6000 series PDP (Personal Data Processor)PDP (Personal Data Processor) IBM-370/168IBM-370/168 TDC-316TDC-316

76 FOURTH GENERATION ( ) Very-large-scale integration (VLSI)Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation.VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements and their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation.

77 Fourth Generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution.Fourth Generation computers became more powerful, compact, reliable, and affordable. As a result, it gave rise to personal computer (PC) revolution. In this generation, Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real- time, Multi-programming Operating System were used.In this generation, Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real- time, Multi-programming Operating System were used. All the higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE, etc., were used in this generation.All the higher level languages like C and C++, DBASE, etc., were used in this generation.

78 The main features of Fourth Generation are: VLSI technology usedVLSI technology used Very cheapVery cheap Portable and reliablePortable and reliable Use of PC'sUse of PC's Very small sizeVery small size Pipeline processingPipeline processing No A.C. neededNo A.C. needed Concept of internet was introducedConcept of internet was introduced Great developments in the fields of networksGreat developments in the fields of networks Computers became easily availableComputers became easily available

79 Some computers of this generation were: DEC 10DEC 10 STAR 1000STAR 1000 PDP 11PDP 11 CRAY-1 (Super Computer)CRAY-1 (Super Computer) CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)

80 FIFTH GENERATION Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

81 Artificial intelligence includes: Games PlayingGames Playing –programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers.

82 Expert SystemsExpert Systems –programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)

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84 Natural LanguageNatural Language –programming computers to understand natural human languages

85 Neural NetworksNeural Networks –Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains

86 RoboticsRobotics –programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli

87 REPORTER….

88 GUILLEN, ARTHUR GLENN

89 Thanks for Listening!!!

90 The first gear-driven calculating machine to actually be built was probably the calculating clock, so named by its inventor, the German professor Wilhelm Schickard in This device got little publicity because Schickard died soon afterward in the bubonic plague.

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92 Original drawing taken from F. Seck (Editor) 'Wilhelm Schickard , Astronom, Geograph, Orientalist, Erfinder der Rechenmaschine', Tübingen, 1978


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