Presentation on theme: "1775 /1800 : 10% of Americans lived in the city 1920: 50% of Americans lived in the city. 1900: 40% lived in the city. Today: 75% live in the city.URBANIZATION."— Presentation transcript:
1775 /1800 : 10% of Americans lived in the city 1920: 50% of Americans lived in the city. 1900: 40% lived in the city. Today: 75% live in the city.URBANIZATION I CAN EXPLAIN URBANIZATION AND HOW IT AFFECTED AMERICA IN THE 1800S
By 1990 New York was the 2 nd biggest city in the world! – a population of 3.5 Million People I CAN EXPLAIN URBANIZATION AND HOW IT AFFECTED AMERICA IN THE 1800S
- In cities most people walked. Mass transit becoming possible though - The “Elevator” was a new form of transportation. -The “skyscraper” was made possible because of the elevator. I CAN SUMMARIZE THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE CITY
Louis Sullivan -Famous American architect in the late 1800’s. His motto was ……. -“Form should follow function!” I CAN SUMMARIZE THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE CITY
1. Electricity 2. Indoor Plumbing 3. Telephone I CAN LIST THE ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE CITY
Aaron Montgomery Ward Came Up With The First Mail Order Catalogue Sears & Roebuck was the next mail order catalogue. I CAN LIST THE ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE CITY
Problems with the city: 1.Impure Water 2.Uncollected Garbage 3.Unwashed Bodies 4.Animal Droppings 5.Poor lighting 6.Crime I CAN LIST THE ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE CITY
“Dumbbell” Tenement: or 8 stories high Minimum ventilation. Designed to make buildings fit as many people as possible. “Lung Block” -Tuberculosis (TB) / Consumption -Terrible contagious diseases I CAN DEFINE AND DESCRIBE A “DUMBBELL TENEMENT”
“Flophouses” were cheap places where you could “flop down” and sleep for a few pennies. Sleep tight…don’t let the bed bugs bite! I CAN DEFINE AND DESCRIBE A “DUMBBELL TENEMENT”
1880’s – 1890’s Came from Southern Europe & Asia The “New Immigrants” had different languages, customs, traditions, religions. They dressed, talked, looked and worshiped differently! They did not assimilate well! “Little Poland” “Little Italy” “Little Chinatown” Review the “OLD” I CAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST OLD AND NEW IMMIGRATION
“Birds of Passage” Were Immigrants who earned a living in the United States & then moved back to their former country. They never intended to stay. “American Fever” “American Letters” I CAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST OLD AND NEW IMMIGRATION
Catholics expanded their “parochial” school system. I CAN SUMMARIZE REACTIONS TO NEW IMMIGRATION
The ”Social Gospel” was the concept that religious, moral individuals should get involved and try to solve the problems in society. Washington Gladden The two main Leaders of the “Social Gospel” were Walter Rausenbauch and Washington Gladden I CAN DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL GOSPEL AND ITS LEADERS
Jane Addams Hull House 1) Jane Addams -started most famous settlement home. It was called the Hull House -started in 1889 Chicago, IL. She even won the Nobel Peace Prize. Lillian Ward Henry St. Settlement House 2) Lillian Ward -started Henry St. Settlement House in It was located in New York City, New York. Florence Kelly 3) Florence Kelly -dressed in black, fought for welfare of blacks and women. I CAN DESCRIBE THE LEADERS OF THE SETTLEMENT HOUSE MOVEMENT
-started against immigrants from the “New Immigration” in the 1880’s-1890’s. APA American Protective Association -Labor Unions did not like immigration because immigrants could be hired as strike breakers or scabs. I CAN SUMMARIZE REACTIONS TO NEW IMMIGRATION
-Given to us From France in 1886! “Give me your tired, your poor, you huddled masses yearning to breathe free” - Emma Lazarus (On Statue of Liberty)
Dwight Lyman Moody He became the most famous modern circuit- rider. I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
In early America, Catholics were considered very liberal, but now they are conservative, because of abortion and the fact other religions have become so liberal. I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
The Salvation Army was started in England, but moved to America. I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
Mary Baker Eddy Christian Science (1879)-founded by Mary Baker Eddy Science & Health w/ Key to the Scriptures “We Classify disease as error, which nothing but truth or mind can heal, & this mind can heal, & this mind must be divine, not human.” -Mary Baker Eddy I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
Young Men & Women’s Christian Association- started in 1889! I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published the “Origin of the Species” in Darwinism-had three main parts: *Survival of the Fittest *Evolution *Natural Selection Social Darwinism Social Darwinism was the concept of applying Darwinism to explain society. (rich & poor, low, middle, & high classes) I CAN EXPLAIN THE IMPACT OF CHARLES DARWIN ON CITY THINKING
Religious people who stood firmly on the fixtures that the bible and God are supreme were called “Conservatives” & “Fundamentalist” People who refused to believe the bible & its entirety as history or science were “liberals” or “Modernist” I CAN DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FUNDAMENTALISTS AND MODERNISTS
A “modernist” and agnostic Agnostic- an agonistic will not usually say there is no God, but will instead say there is no proof of one. I CAN DISCUSS AGNOSTICISM AND ITS LEADERS
Teacher-training schools! I CAN SUMMARIZE CHANGES IN EDUCATION IN THE 1800S
Replace the “lyceum” as the way that adults educated themselves AFTER the Civil War. Features lectures like Mark Twain. Also included a home study course. The “lyceum” was the way adults could become educated. before the civil war in the “Antebellum” period. Featured speakers that would give lectures to the public. Ex. Ralph Waldo Emerson The “Chautauqua movement” CIVIL WARCIVIL WAR I CAN SUMMARIZE CHANGES IN EDUCATION IN THE 1800S
Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute1881- started Tuskegee Institute tradeTaught academics & a trade Autobiography Up From Slavery Admired by blacks & whites Economic equality will lead to full political and social equality. He was deeply criticized by W.E.B. De Bois. He called him an “Uncle Tom” -”In all things that are purely social, we must be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to human progress” Famous speech was ”The Atlanta Compromise” I CAN IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE THE TEACHINGS OF BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
*Became a teacher at Tuskegee Institute *Boosted the southern economy by discovering hundreds of uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, & soybeans. I CAN DESCRIBE THE WORK OF GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER
First black person to get a doctorate degree from Harvard NAACP Help found the NAACP in (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Fought for complete black equality now! Critical of Booker T. Washington Talented Tenth Believed in the “Talented Tenth” of each race. Renounced American Citizenship-embraced communism…in self- exile I CAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE VIEWS OF BOOKER T. WASHINGTON AND W.E.B. DUBOIS
In percent (25%) of college graduates were women. This was very significant for the advancement of women's rights. I CAN DESCRIBE THE EMERGENCE OF THE COLLEGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT
Morrill Act-1862 Morrill Act provided land to the states for land- grant colleges. Hatch Act-1887 Hatch Act gave more land to colleges if they started agricultural experimentation stations I CAN IDENTIFY TWO PIECES OF LEGISLATION DESIGNED TO CREATE COLLEGES
The First high-grade graduate school! I CAN DESCRIBE THE EMERGENCE OF THE COLLEGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT
Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur -came up with “Pasteurization” which made some food products safer for consumption. Joseph Lister Joseph Lister -antiseptics
“Pragmatism” - was the concept that truth was to be tested above all, by the practical consequences of an idea. By action rather than theories. If it works…do it! Practical William James Pragmatism William James wrote a book called Pragmatism
The 3 major journalistic Tycoons: Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Charles Dana Yellow Journalism A new kind of journalism in newspapers and magazines. Featured sex, scandal, and human interest stories. Ex. tabloids Pulitzer …. The “Yellow Kid” was the first comic strip added to newspapers tp stimulate sales. The Pulitzer Prize A.P.
CALIFORNIA HOME WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST Where Mr. Byrd’s house would sit!
He thought that people owning land and then selling it for a large profit was what caused poverty and wealth. He said…Solve it by putting a 100% tax on the sale of land. Henry George - Progress and Poverty Would it work? $$$
Dime novels become extremely popular—fantasy stories of the West common
A man falls asleep in 1880 and awakes in the year 2000, sees the government running and regulating everything. So… all of the major problems of society had been solved! Encouraged people to become socialistic! Influenced England a great deal…Bellamy clubs Edward Bellamy - Looking Backward
Believed in “free love” Goal was to get rid of “immoral” materials
Was (and still is) hard on families. Many cracked under the strain. The “urban era” launched the era of divorce! People had fewer kids. Marriages were delayed. Was (and still is) hard on families. Many cracked under the strain. The “urban era” launched the era of divorce! People had fewer kids. Marriages were delayed. Urbanization: Impact on the family
She rejected that biology made women fundamentally different. Urged women to use day-care and go out and get a job. She rejected that biology made women fundamentally different. Urged women to use day-care and go out and get a job. Charlotte Perkins Gilman - Women and Economics Distant relation to Beechers She shunned feminine frills and advocated physical exercise.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Helped found the N.A.W.S.A. (National American Women’s Suffrage Association) 1890 BY 1900 there were two new leaders of the women’s right movement: Carrie Chapman Catt Alice Paul Carrie Chapman Catt
was the first state to give women right to vote in The “Equality State” was the first state to give women right to vote in The “Equality State” Wyoming 19 th amendment passed in… 1920
Ida B. Wells Inspired women by leading a nation wide “anti-lynching” crusade. Later started the National Association of Colored Women in Did you notice the date? She was before…?
Carrie Nation The “Kansas Cyclone” Carrie A. Nation, whose first husband had died of alcoholism. With her hatchet she boldly smashed saloon bottles and bars, and her “hatchetations” brought considerable disrepute to the prohibition movement because of the violence of her one-woman crusade.
The “saloon”: appropriately named the “poor man’s club National Prohibition Party: 3 rd party started against alcohol The 2 new organizations started against alcohol were the: The W.C.T.U. (Women's Christian Temperance Union) 1874 The “Anti-Saloon League” 1893 Review Prohibition… then continue…. Francis Willard Songs against alcohol:; “I’LL MARRY NO MAN IF HE DRINKS” “THE LIPS THAT TOUCH LIQUOR MUST NEVER TOUCH MINE”
”Angel of the (Civil War) battlefield” Started the American chapter of the “Red Cross” in 1881 Clara Barton
James Whistler “Whistler’s Mother” Winslow Homer “ Civil war & seascapes” Frederick Remington “Old West /Sp-Am” George Inness Thomas Eakins John Singer Sargent
Frederic Remington’s artwork The Buffalo Hunt The Trooper On the Southern Plains The Smoke Signal
August Saint-Gaudens America’s most famous sculptor
The modern “circus” popularized in the late 1800’s by P.T Barnum ( “The Greatest Show on Earth!”) “There’s a sucker is born every minute!”? Today: Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey’s Circus
What’s “a Annie Oakley” today?
HENRY RICHARDSON Richardsonian architecture: a distinctive ornamental style of architecture that featured high-vaulted arches like those on Gothic churches. Review the architects!
James Naismith: inventor of the game of basketball Baseball Football ***Basketball Three sports in order of invention:
JOHN L SULLIVAN “The Boston Strong Boy” Boxing: became a respectable sport in the late 1800’s. “Gentleman Jim” Corbett Why did Jim beat John?
Two new crazes of “the naughty nineties” Croquet Safety bicycle Winslow Homer