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For your personal use only. Unless you obtain written permission from Larry Michaelsen, Please do not: Use as part of a presentation to other faculty.

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Presentation on theme: "For your personal use only. Unless you obtain written permission from Larry Michaelsen, Please do not: Use as part of a presentation to other faculty."— Presentation transcript:

1 For your personal use only. Unless you obtain written permission from Larry Michaelsen, Please do not: Use as part of a presentation to other faculty. Use as part of a presentation to other faculty. Duplicate or reproduce. Duplicate or reproduce. Post on a web site. Post on a web site.

2 Team-Based Learning™ (TBL) A comprehensive strategy for using learning groups in a way that: 1. Harnesses the power of Teams. 2. Avoids potential problems. 3. Is effective in any course in which: Content coverage is important. Content coverage is important. The instructor is at least as committed to developing students’ ability to apply content as he or she is to covering it. The instructor is at least as committed to developing students’ ability to apply content as he or she is to covering it.

3 My Course Objectives Students should: Master course content. Master course content. Be able to apply course content. Be able to apply course content. Develop interpersonal and group interaction skills. Develop interpersonal and group interaction skills. Become life-long learners. Become life-long learners. Enjoy the course. Enjoy the course.

4 Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategy for Developing Concept Mastery: Lecture/Discussion Lecture/Discussion Individual study (pre-class or post-class?) Individual study (pre-class or post-class?) Individual study (PRE-class) Individual study (PRE-class) Readiness Assurance Process Readiness Assurance Process Traditional TeachingTeam-Based Learning

5 Team-Based Learning™ Instructional Activity Sequence Instructional Activity Sequence (Repeated for each major instructional unit, i.e., 5-7 per course) Preparation (Pre-class) Readiness Assurance Diagnosis-Feedack 1. Individual Study 2. Individual Test 3. Team Test 4. Written Appeals (teams) 5. Instructor Input 20%-30% of class time70%-80% of class time Application of Course Concepts Development of Students’Critical Thinking Skills

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7 Team-Based Learning™ Instructional Activity Sequence (for each unit) Readiness Assurance Process Ensures: Readiness Assurance Process Ensures: –Effective and efficient content coverage. –Development of real teams and team interaction skills. –An experience-based insight about the value of diverse input. –Development of students’ self-study & life-long learning skills. –Class time to develop students’ application/critical thinking skills. Preparation (Pre-class) Readiness Assurance Diagnosis-Feedback 1 hour + or -A few minutes to several hours (Integrative) 1. Individual Study 2. Individual Test 3. Team Test 4. Written Appeals (teams) 5. Instructor Input 6. Application/Critical Thinking-focused Activities & Problems Application of Course Concepts Development of Students’Critical Thinking Skills

8 Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategy for Developing Concept Application Skills: Class discussion? Class discussion? Individual papers and/or projects Individual papers and/or projects Group papers and/or projects (outside of class) Group papers and/or projects (outside of class) IN-CLASS Team Work IN-CLASS Team Work Specific choice tasks– to create discussion: Specific choice tasks– to create discussion: –Within teams –Between teams –With/from instructor (to confirm/challenge & add to points made by students) Traditional TeachingTeam-Based Learning

9 Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategy for Developing Interpersonal and Team Skills: “Sink or Swim” at best. “Sink or Swim” at best. Mostly individual (not group) work–done by “divide & conquer” Mostly individual (not group) work–done by “divide & conquer” Promotes negative attitudes about group work (especially with top students.) Promotes negative attitudes about group work (especially with top students.) In-class, decision- based tasks which promote discussion & provide immediate feedback to: In-class, decision- based tasks which promote discussion & provide immediate feedback to: –Ensure individual & team accountability. –Develop real teams. –Enhance students’ teamwork skills. Traditional TeachingTeam-Based Learning

10 Traditional Teaching vs. TBL Strategy for Developing Life-Long Learners: Counterproductive (lectures promote dependence on instructor.) Counterproductive (lectures promote dependence on instructor.) Process creates competent and confident learners. They experience learning from: Process creates competent and confident learners. They experience learning from: –Individual study. –Discussion with peers. –Choices/consequences (open book–much like “on the job training” ) Traditional TeachingTeam-Based Learning

11 The Readiness Assurance Process The Readiness Assurance Process

12 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

13 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

14 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

15 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

16 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

17 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

18 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

19 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

20 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Timing: Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line) If you finish early: Read the instructions for the:Read the instructions for the:  team test  appeals Collect the answer sheets and put them in the team folder.Collect the answer sheets and put them in the team folder.

21 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Timing: Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line) Don’t forget – every member should record the team score on every question.

22 Readiness Assurance Test Activity Sequence Test* Individual Test** Team Appeals*** Discussion Questions/ Timing: Mark both test & answer sheet (4 points per line)

23 Questions about the Readiness Assurance Process?

24 Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member. Spring 2013 (10 teams)

25 Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member. Spring 2013 (10 teams)

26 Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member. Spring 2013 (10 teams)

27 Having only one individual score higher than the lowest team in an entire class is: 1. An unusually low number 2. About normal 3. More than normal—the lowest team score is usually higher than the best individual score.

28 Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its own BEST member. Fall 2012 (15 teams)

29 Gain (or loss) based on comparing the score of each team to the score of its ownBEST member. Spring 2012 (15 teams)

30 IBE at UCM (9 1/2 years): 1063 students in 165 teams students in 165 teams. 22 individuals higher than the lowest of 165 teams (2%). 22 individuals higher than the lowest of 165 teams (2%). Only 3 (of 19) classes had any individual score higher than the lowest team in the class. Only 3 (of 19) classes had any individual score higher than the lowest team in the class.

31 Since 1986 — 6,555 students in 1,182 teams: 1,181 teams scored higher than their own BEST member (99.9+% of teams). 1,181 teams scored higher than their own BEST member (99.9+% of teams). 1 individual outscored his team (<.1% of teams). 1 individual outscored his team (<.1% of teams).

32 Top students are treated unfairly if their grades are heavily influenced by group work. True or False: False!!!

33 Keys to Designing Effective Group Assignments

34 Effective Team Assignments Maximum learning occurs when assignments at each stage are characterized by ”4 S’s": Significant Problem. Problem involves issues that are significant to students. Significant Problem. Problem involves issues that are significant to students. Same Problem. Individuals/groups are working on the same problem, case or question. Same Problem. Individuals/groups are working on the same problem, case or question. Specific Choice. Individuals/groups are required to use course concepts to make a specific choice. Specific Choice. Individuals/groups are required to use course concepts to make a specific choice. Simultaneous Report. Individuals/groups report their choices simultaneously. Simultaneous Report. Individuals/groups report their choices simultaneously.

35 Violating/omitting _____ would have the LEAST negative impact on the effectiveness of team assignments? 1. Significant problem 2. Same problem 3. Specific choice 4. Simultaneous report

36 Using class time for group work limits content coverage. Using class time for group work limits content coverage. Grading group work results in: Grading group work results in: –Better students doing most of the work. –Less motivated and/or less able students becoming “free-riders.” Using group assignments requires the instructor to: Using group assignments requires the instructor to: –Spend time resolving conflicts in groups. –Teach students how to work in groups. Problems with Learning Groups?

37 Problems GUARANTEED if: Individuals not accountable for being prepared for group work. Individuals not accountable for being prepared for group work. Groups create the deliverables to be graded outside of the class.. Groups create the deliverables to be graded outside of the class.. The form of the deliverables: The form of the deliverables: –Requires students to create complex and professional-looking “products.” –Prevents students from receiving timely and unequivocal feedback on the thinking that went into their creation.

38 Requiring lengthy documents (or group presentations) is at the heart of most of the really bad problems because: The sensible approach is to divide-up the task of creating the final “product.” (Thus, it won’t actually be a group assignment). The sensible approach is to divide-up the task of creating the final “product.” (Thus, it won’t actually be a group assignment). Better students are forced to choose between doing more than their fair share of the work or facing the very real risk getting a bad grade. Better students are forced to choose between doing more than their fair share of the work or facing the very real risk getting a bad grade.

39 Using class time for group work limits content coverage. Using class time for group work limits content coverage. Grading group work results in: Grading group work results in: –Better students doing most of the work. –Less motivated and/or less able students becoming “free-riders.” Using group assignments requires the instructor to: Using group assignments requires the instructor to: –Spend time resolving conflicts in groups. –Teach students how to work in groups. Problems with Learning Groups?

40 Problems AVOIDABLE by: Individual accountability for PRE-class preparation for group work (Readiness Assurance Process). Individual accountability for PRE-class preparation for group work (Readiness Assurance Process). Groups create the final product to be graded during class time. Groups create the final product to be graded during class time. Using 4 S’s group assignments: Using 4 S’s group assignments: –Significant Problem. Problem involves issues that are significant to students. –Same Problem. Individuals/groups work on the same problem, case or question. –Specific Choice. Individuals/groups must use course concepts to make a specific choice. –Simultaneous Report. Individuals/groups report their choices simultaneously.

41 Questions?

42 Example Application: Muscle Physiology The two finalists in the world arm-wrestling championships at Petaluma, California, are well- matched. Upper body muscle mass, insensitivity to pain, motivation, and experience are identical between the two. Vito, a Las Vegas bookie, slips you the results of each competitor’s physical exam and ‘asks’ you to predict the winner. What is most likely to determine the eventual winner? A.Maximum cardiac output B.Mitochondrial content of the exercising muscles C.Muscle glycogen content D.Oxygen carrying capacity of the blood E.Phosphocreatine levels in the muscles


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